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The Rise And Fall Of The Roman And Islamic Civilizations

1894 words - 8 pages

Early Rome began like many other early civilizations. Sometime between 1,500 and 1,000 B.C.E. groups of warlike people, speaking a common language we refer to as Italic, began moving into the Italian peninsula from across the Adriatic Sean. One of these peoples was the Latins. By 800 B.C.E. the Latins established Seven Hills near the Tiber River. Around this same time the Etruscans moved into present day Italy. The Etruscans turned seven villages into the city of Rome ruled by a monarchy. 509 B.C.E. the Romans overthrew the Etruscan king replacing the monarchy with a republic, in which citizens elect representatives to govern.
During this time two social classes clashed for control; the ...view middle of the document...

They didn’t destroy those they conquered, in most cases they brought them under Roman rule. Citizenship and trading rights were granted to member city states and in return they contributed soldiers to the Roman army. Roads were built to connect the empire allowing trade to flourish and quicker movement of the roman army. Both the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.E. and the Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.E.) challenged Rome in new ways both militarily and in the administrative aspect of controlling distant lands. Rome then set its sights on the Hellenistic world, in 215 -205 B.C.E. fist Macedonian War, 200-197 B.C.E. the Second Macedonian War, 189 B.C.E. Rome defeats Antiochus who was expanding his power in Asia and on the European side of the Hellespont, 172 B.C.E. Third Macedonian War, 149-146 B.C.E. Third Punic War, and in 154-133 Roman Wars in Spain.
The fall of the Roman Republic gave way to the Roman Empire. The main reasons for the fall of the republic were; a growing gap between the rich and poor, little support for reforms in the senate, and riots and rebellions among the poor and slaves. Ambitious generals soon took advantage of this civil unrest resulting in the break out of civil between 82 and 31 B.C.E. The first triumvirate was formed in 60 B.C.E. consisting of the three leading generals: Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar. That same year Julius Caesar was elected consul. He shared power with Pompey and Crassus. Once Crassus died Pompey turned against Caesar. During this time the senate tried to force Caesar to give up military command but they failed. He used the army to seize power from Pompey and in 45 B.C.E. Caesar became dictator. During this time he redistributed land to army veterans, created public works for the jobless and expanded the senate to 900 members as to reduce its power. In on March 15, 44 B.C.E. Caesar was stabbed 35 times on the steps of the senate. In 31 B.C.E. Caesar’s nephew Octavian (Augustus Caesar) took power by defeating Marc Antony. His assumption of power formally ended the roman republic establishing a new hereditary emperor. During this time Christianity emerged. The Roman Empire peaked under the rule of Trajan 98-117 CE. The Pax Romana: Piece and Prosperity reigned for 100 years (96-180 CE). Some of the accomplishments of the time were architectural domes, concrete used in the construction of buildings, arches, aqueducts, roads and bridges, and a system of law.
The fall of Rome was most likely caused by a combination of internal and external pressures. One of the external pressures was the Germanic Goths who were increasingly attacking the Northern frontier along the Danube River during the reign of Marcus Aurelious 161-180 CE. Marcus Aurelious died of chicken pox in March of 180 CE and was succeeded by his son Commodus. Commodus disliked the administrative component of being ruler and neglected it which lead to dissatisfaction among the senate. He tried to eliminate this by becoming a dictator, became...

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