The Peopling Of The Americas: Death Of The Clovis First Model

1392 words - 6 pages

John T. Rine
Engl 1010-049x
2nd Position Assignment
Due 11/04/04

The Peopling of the Americas: Death of the Clovis First Model

The Clovis Cultural Complex was, until very recently, acknowledged as being the earliest prehistoric culture identified in the Americas. With the discoveries, however, of North American sites such as: Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, the Cactus Hill Site, and the Topper Site, evidence against the Clovis first model of the peopling of the Americas is accumulating at a substantial rate. In fact so much evidence has accumulated that a case can be made for the abandonment of the Clovis first model. It is the aim of the author of this work to make such a case.
In ...view middle of the document...

3). McConaughy then describes how carbon contamination was avoided at Meadowcroft. “Particulate coal contamination would have been readily noticeable to the Smithsonian Radiocarbon lab that dated this sample. First, the samples (as were other samples from Meadowcroft) were microscopically examined for coal contamination (note: local coal does not display any cellular structure and would be easily recognizable under a microscope when compared to wood or bark). Thus, particulate coal can be eliminated as a contaminate in this and all the samples from the site. Conversely, if water-soluble humates had been the contaminant, they would have been removed by pretreatment, and a corresponding reduction in the size of the sample should have been noted. It was not.” (“Meadowcroft Rockshelter” par. 7).
Also, the site stratigraphy “has been called into question due to incongruities concerning floral and faunal associations” ("Meadowcroft Rockshelter" par. 3). Apparently the floral remains located in the site’s lowest horizon “are black gum, oak, and hickory [and the faunal remains taken from the same level] include white-tailed deer, southern flying squirrel, and the passenger pigeon” ("Meadowcroft Rock Shelter" par. 4). The remains of these species are not normally recovered from a Pleistocene age site ("Meadowcroft Rock Shelter" par. 4). The University of Minnesota’s E-museum web site states that “[James] Adovasio, [researcher of Meadowcroft] counters this by saying that the low-lying, south facing Meadowcroft Rockshelter was in a microclimate, a sheltered region that could have had a more temperate climate” ("Meadowcroft Rock Shelter" par. 4).
Within the pre-Clovis horizon, a new projectile point type later named for the owner of the site was discovered: the Miller Lanceolate. Unlike Clovis points, this point type isn’t fluted.
The Cactus Hill Site, actually a set of sites, is located in Southern Virginia. At one of the sites, blade type stone tools and a broken projectile point were found well below (9") a Clovis horizon. Critics of the site attribute the location of this discovery to floral or faunal disturbance rather then original deposition. At a site near by, however, stone tools similar in nature to the ones recovered from the other site, have been radiocarbon dated to 15,000 BP and 16,000 BP using remains found in direct association with the recovered tools ("PaleoIndians of Cactus Hill" par. 1). That is why one of the premier American Paleoindian researchers, Vance Haynes of the University of Arizona, said that Cactus Hill is "one of the best candidate pre-Clovis sites to come down in a long time" (qtd. in "PaleoIndians of Cactus Hill" par. 1). Regarding the projectile point recovery from the Cactus Hill site complex, “two…lanceolate/triangular bifaces were also found that” researchers of the site “have called Early Triangular” (“Resource Distribution” par. 9). This point type, like the Miller...

Other Papers Like The Peopling of the Americas: Death of the Clovis First Model

The Penalty of Death Essay

1502 words - 7 pages 06-29-2010 H. L. Mencken’s “The Penalty of Death” Essay By Angelo Bolden References A Mencken Cornucopia by Gibbons Burke Death Penalty – Internet Articles (Google) Capital Punishment – Internet Articles (Google) Sociology 100 - Wayne County Community College Text H. L. Mencken is an author and critic who write about societies need for katharsis. First, Mencken uses logical symbolism to justify the validity of capital

The Death Of Tyrants Essay

261 words - 2 pages The Hundred Years’ War lasted from 1337 to 1453. It was between the English and the French. King Edward III of England launched the war to try and claim the throne. The war lasted so long that new innovations were needed to help turn the tide. The Hundred Years’ War morphed the medieval ways of life into a whole new culture. Many factors during the Hundred Years’ War led to fall of the medieval ways of life. The first major factor was the

The First War of Independence

811 words - 4 pages Begum hazrat mahal The First War of Independence (1857-58) was the first general widespread uprising against the rule of the British East India Company. The Doctrine of Lapse, issue of cartridges greased with animal fat to Indian soldiers, introduction of British system of education and a number of social reforms had infuriated a very wide section of the Indian people, who rose in revolt at a number of places all over India. The East

The First Law of Thermodynamics

2724 words - 11 pages THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, THE CONCEPT The First Law: the concepts The basic concepts A system is the part of the world in which we have a special interest. It may be a reaction vessel, an engine, an electrochemical cell, and so on. Around the system is its surroundings, where we make our observations. The two parts may be in contact and are separated by a boundary, and specifying the system and its surroundings amounts to

The Causes of the First World War

1228 words - 5 pages Introduction There are a lot of reasons for the outbreak of the First World War. In this project I will be explaining the causes of the first world with such topics in the Long term section such as Germany’s defeat of France in the Franco - Prussian war, the development of the alliance system, naval rivalry, colonial rivalry and the rivalry of Russia and Austria in the Balkans. Also I will be explaining the short term causes which are The

Evaluation of the Multi-Store Model

808 words - 4 pages The multi-store of memory was proposed in 1968 by Atkinson & Shiffrin, it suggests that memory is a flow of information through a series of systems. There are three distinct stages of the system; sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information passes through each stage of the system in a linear fashion by maintenance rehearsal. Also, external stimuli, like hearing the headline for the day's news, first enters the sensory

The Spices Model of Curriculum Design

1445 words - 6 pages DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM USING THE SPICES MODEL after harden et al 1984 (univ. dundee) Purpose of the SPICES model: 1. to review an existing curriculum to see where improvements can be made 2. to develop a new curriculum from scratch 3. to tackle specific questions or issues relating to a curriculum 4. to help decide on what sort of teaching methods to use on a course 5. decide what format the assessment should take

The Three Stage Model of Interviewing

1148 words - 5 pages  The Three Stage Model of Interviewing BSHS/385 May 11.2015 The Three Stage Model of Interviewing In our ever day lives we use communication to engage with people and talk about whatever they feel like. In the field of human services we communicate by interviewing. Interviewing is different from random conservations and has a greater purpose. By interviewing our clients we can discover their

The Development of Facebook’s Business Model

2083 words - 9 pages CB613: Business Model of Facebook | March 17 2014 | | Olawale Animashaun | In this essay I will be discussing the development of Facebook’s business model. This essay will cover topics such as what key resources and activities are needed for the business to succeed and who can help and support the business. Once this has been established, we will then look at how it fits into the current market, what are the key benefits created from

Describe the Multistore Model of Memory

2992 words - 12 pages long-term memory are two of the three stores on the multistore model of memory and they are quite different from each other… there will be a brief description of the sensory store first. The sensory store is held as what we call a fleeting memory within the sensory receptors but not at a central location so the capacity is very limited and it’s duration is again very limited lasting just half a second. From this information, we select what we want

The Role Model of Muhammad Ali

2590 words - 11 pages dominated boxing as thoroughly and magnificently as any fighter ever. But outside the ring, his persona was being sculpted in ways that were even more important. “My first impression of Cassius Clay,” author Alex Haley later recalled, “was of someone with an incredibly versatile personality. You never knew quite where he was in psychic posture. But he had a belief in himself and convictions far stronger than anybody dreamed he would.” As the

Related Essays

Ancient Civilisations Of The Americas Essay

578 words - 3 pages Hist 131 S7 Ancient Civilization of the Americas Humans first settled The Americas continents between 30000 and 12000 years ago. They were able to do this because at that period the world was covered in ice during the ice age period. Glaciers locked up much of the world’s water causing the water level to decrease and opening a bridge of land between Siberia and Alaska. When the glaciers receded and melted the oceans rose and therefore flooding

History Of The Capm Model Essay

1415 words - 6 pages uses multiple betas, and is more explanatory as opposed to statistical. Also, each beta used generally corresponds to the markets that most affect the particular portfolio or securities chosen. There are a handful of assumptions associated with the Markowitz model. The first is that the risk of a portfolio is based on the variability of returns from said portfolio. Second, that an investor is risk averse. Third, the investor prefers to increase

The Fiedler Model Of Leadership Essay

1165 words - 5 pages The Fiedler Model of Leadership Fred Edward Fiedler (born July 13, 1922) is one of the leading researchers in industrial and organizational psychology of the 20th century. He was business and management psychologist at the University of Washington.He helped this field move from the research on traits and personal characteristics of leaders, to leadership styles and behaviours. In 1967 he introduced the contingency modeling of leadership

Death Of The Bird Essay

520 words - 3 pages POET; A D Hope   The first verses define a whole ethos of estrangement that was a feature of Australian society, at least of a certain kind, right up to and through the 20th century. It probably still exists, in sheltered drawing rooms where dowagers speak of England as “home”. They live in this country as exiles. At best they love this country, but they also love the “mother country” and it draws them back, often actually. Â