The Influence of the Culture and Author in the Novel of “Khotbah Di Atas Bukit” by Kuntowijoyo
Literary works are the result of the action recollection of something that is known, understood and internalized, either intellectually, intuitively and emotionally by the author. The main causes of the appearance of a literary work is its own creator, the author. That is why an explanation of the personality and life of the author is the oldest most established method in the study of literature. Basically literature is the personal work of individuals extended through the imagination of the author. So literature is the personal thoughts of individuals in the form of ideas, expressions, intentions ...view middle of the document...
Masalah yang berkaitan disini adalah dasar ekonomi produksi sastra, latar belakang sosial, status pengarang, dan ideology pengarang yang terlihat dari berbagai kegiatan pengarang diluar karya sastra” (Wellek & Warren, 2013: 100).
“Karya sastra merupakan sturkturalis pengalaman. Pengalaman pribadi, pengalaman orang lain, pengalaman kolektif, pengalaman hasil riset. Pengalaman menjadi bahan dasar suatu cerita itu berserakan, terletak disana sini, tidak pernah utuh, dan selalu sepotong-sepotong” (Kosasih, 2012: 95). As in this quote an author experiences have an important role in his work. Experience is the source and reason how a writer can create a masterpiece. And from the quotations before, it was clear that the extrinsic elements that can be seen from the culture where the author lived at the time the work was created and also the thought or view of the author of an issue will have a major impact on the work he made at that time.
The genre which is contained in the novel "Khotbah Di Atas Bukit" by Kuntowijoyo is mysticism, which further highlight on the religious and mystical (metaphysical). The author, Kuntowijoyo beside of being a litterateur and humanist, he is also a thinker (intellectual) Islam that intelligent, honest, and integrity. And he is also a kiyai. He helped build and maintain a boarding school of Budi Mulia in 1980. From the figure of the author himself then it is natural that the theme contained in this work is religious. “Keterlibatan sosial, sikap, dan ideologi pengarang dapat dipelajari tidak hanya melalui karya-karya mereka, tetapi juga dari dokumen biografi. Pengarang adalah seorang warga masyarakat yang tentunya mempunyai pendapat tentang masalah-masalah politik dan sosial yang penting, serta mengikuti isu-isu zamannya” (Wellek & Warren, 2013: 102).
In this novel, Kuntowijoyo using the means of aesthetic or Sufi mystical literature. For example, looks with the presence of twin figures Barman and Humam, which can be connected with the story of Dewa Ruci. In Dewa Ruci, Bima meet with Dewa Ruci twin figures (whose bodies are smaller, but face similar).
“Aneh, pikir Barman. Ini belum pernah terjadi. Siapakah yang berbicara? Tamu itu bersabar. Alangkah serupanya mereka. Perbedaan mereka hanyalah pada perabot-perabot pakaian saja. Selebihnya keseragaman. “inilah potretku sendiri,” gumam tamu itu.”
And the trip to the mountain which is done by Barman to rest along Poppy, the women which is awarded by his son to accompany her during a stay at a resort on the slopes of the mountain, is a kind of imagery or metaphors for the spiritual journey of man from a low to a high place. Such imagery commonly used by authors Javanese and Malay Sufi.
“Bunga-bunga dihalaman akan lebih wangi, rumput akan lebih hijau. “Semerbak mewangi sepanjang hari. Tralala!” Ia ingin menyanyi ketika deru mobil yang mengantarnya ke gunung itu sampai telinganya. Selamat tinggal kesibukan, selamat tinggal hiruk piruk”
From the this quotation we can...