The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory
The purpose of this study is to do a memory-for-words that will explore the influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory. The study examines the influence of sleep on false memory. This study is looking at two things: (1) how does sleep improve recognition of words? And if so, it would support the claim that sleep facilitates encoding into LTM. (2) How does sleep enhance a false memory of a word?
According to Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996) false memories are often created by combining actual memories with suggestions received from others, it can include words that we learn and having them associated with semantic information. False memories are ...view middle of the document...
(2001), critical lures are activated automatically due to spreading activation during learning. Ones lure come to mind, it is likely to be recalled unless prevented by monitoring strategy.
There are different methodologies of testing the DRM, Gallo, Roediger, and McDermott (2001) tested whether false memories occur due to encoding or retrieval process. To test they warned participants about the false memory effect t either prior or after learning DRM lists. Their results had shown that warning provided prior to learning reduced false memory, but not reduced when warning was provided after learning. Through the results found they have conclude that false memories effects can be reduced through encoding process.
Another way of reducing false memory effect is by changing how people attend to encode list items. According to fuzzy-trace theory suggested by Brainerd et al., (2002) states that processing styles influence critical lure activation during learning, they are two independent processing styles which are the verbatim and gist. Gist focuses attention on semantic relations which activates critical lure, and verbatim focus attention to the perceptual details of items, which reduces the activation of semantic relations
According to (Stickgold & Walker, 2005); For that has been thought that sleep plays a crucial role in consolidation of recently formed memories, and evidences retention of procedural knowledge can be enhanced by a period of sleep, as well as can retention of motor skills. (Walker, Brakefield, Morgan, Hobson, & Stickgold, 2002). Researcher have observed that few episodic memories are rarely formed during a day are retained the following day. (Conway, 2009; Williams, Conway, & Baddeley, 2008).
In the present study authors were interested in analyzing the influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory.
Two hypotheses for this study were:
1) Participants who have a night of sleep after read the words, will remembered the words better, than participants who have to recall the words after a day of activity.
2) Actual words will be more remembered than lure words.
There were 36 participants all undergraduates from Westminster College in different academic years. Participants were randomly selected.
The study used a list of 14 words. A data sheet of recognition words to be graded in a scale from 1 to 5, 1 meaning the word not been on the list, and 5 the word been on the list
The study was done in two groups. The first group read the list of words in evening before bed time, and completes the recognition score sheet on the morning (before day of activity with approximately an eight hours’ time lag between study and completing the data sheet). The second group read the words in the morning, and answered the words in the recognition sheet in end of the day (after a day of activity...