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The Impact World War 1 Had On Russia

1759 words - 8 pages

Military
• Some Russians saw this ad indicative of a new mood in the country.
• Although, not everyone in Russia had such optimism and enthusiasm about the war.
• In February 1914, Peter Durnovo, the 70-year old ex Minister of Internal Affairs, and the leader of the Conservative group in the state council, wrote a memorandum in which he argued that a war with Germany would be disastrous for Russia.
• He dreaded the economic outcome of war, arguing that Russia did not have the financial resources to engage in a major European conflict and that either victory or dear would bring unfavourable economic consequences.
• .
• The first winter of war was one of stalemate.
• Russias ...view middle of the document...

• The volume of Russia’s foreign trade declined sharply. During 1914-15, imports fell by 40% and exports declined by the same proportion over the first 2 years of the war.
• The demands which the military placed upon the economy were severe.
• Almost 15million men served in the tsarist forces during the first 2 years of war and the dislocation that conscription brought to the labour force was considerable.
• The labour force was also upset by the pressures being imposed on it by Russias need to increase its industrial production. Partly to compensate for the difficulty of importing goods and partly to supply the enormous armies.

Arms and ammunition
• The belief that the war would be short had led Russian military strategists to concentrate on building up stocks of arms and ammunition, believing that they would suffice for thr 6month conflict.
• They had given no thought to ensure that armament factories would be ready to increase production quickly, and maintain supplies over a long period.
• When it became clear that the war was going to last much longer than anticipated, and that the nature of the fighting dictated the need for huge quantities of weaponry, the Russian armaments industry had great difficulty in coping with the changed circumstances.
• The Tula rifle factory, the largest in the empire, produced only 16 rifles during the first 7months of 1914.
• The crisis of the armaments supply was at its most severe during 1915: the Russian armed forces estimated that they would 3.5 million artillery shells each month and yet during the first four months of the year, they received a total of only 2million shells.
• The supply of rifles was equally poor.
• Russian industry was not able to meet the demands.
• By the summer of 1915, domestic production of shells was running at only 1million per month, less than 1/3 of the quantity the army needed.
• This inadequacy of arms and ammunition made a substantial contribution to Russias military setbacks of 1915.

Industry
• There was a complicated system of exemptions from military services, many industrial workers did not escape being called up/
• In Petrograd between 1914 and 1916 40,000 of the labour force were lost to the army.
• This coincided with industry, which required a greatly increased labour force to cope with the demand for a higher output/
• The number of industrial workers in the capital grew by more than 60% between 1914 and 1917, and factories were still after more labour.
• The Russian coal-mining industry expanded during the war, partly in response fo the near-impossibility of importing coal from Britain.
• Its labour force doubled to reach 800,000.
• Faced with transporting millions of soldiers across the empire, and the need to keep them supplied and equipped, the Russian railway system took on nearly 400,000 more employees during the war.
• After 1915, the performance of Russian industry improved substantially.
• Factories switched to producing...

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