Policy Issues in Tourism, Leisure and Sport |
The impact of low cost airlines on city tourism in Europe: policy implications for Portugal.
1-Justificacion of the topic 3
2-How/When the air companies appearing 3
3-Apperence of low Cost Airlines 5
4-Impacts of Low Cost Airlines In Tourist Activity: 6
5-Impact of Low Cost Airlines in Portugal 6
6-Measures taken by the Portuguese State 7
7-Conclusion : 8
1-Justificacion of the topic
Actuality tourism and transport had been one topic very explored, since the development of transport powered by technological development has been one of the essential ...view middle of the document...
The liberalization of the commercial air market only begin in the mid-80, first in some countries and later to the European Union
Before the liberalization process enters into force in Europe between 1987 and 1997, the transport sector little competition between airlines traditional, since tariffs were assigned by bilateral agreements between States, which imposed certain routes and airports, aircraft types, rates and frequencies of flights each company air. The ability of most routes was restricted rates were very high and the market entry of companies that were not traditional flag was almost impossible The first step to the liberalisation of aviation, occurred between Ireland and UK which created the conditions for the emergence of the first European low fares airline, Ryanair. Ryanair was permitted to enter certain routes between Ireland and the UK, bringing competition to the duopoly that has existed for years between the national airlines, Aer Lingus and British Airways
The liberalisation of European air transport was achieved in four stages:
i) In 1987, under the first package of liberalisation measures, fare restrictions were reduced. Carriers were also given additional flexibility for cooperation within the limits of existing air service agreements.
ii) In 1990 the so-called second package of liberalisation measures allowed all European airlines to carry passengers to and from their home countries to other EU Member States (3rd and 4th freedoms). Also 5th freedom flights, i.e. intra-European flights with stop-over in a third country and the right to pick-up and drop-off passengers during the stopover, were allowed to a greater extent. Fare and capacity restrictions were further abolished.
iii) In 1993 the third package of measures, including the common licensing of carriers and freedom of access to the market, was introduced. All carriers holding a community license were allowed to serve any international route within the European Union. Finally, carriers were given almost full freedom to set fares.
iv) In 1997, as part of the third liberalisation package, all carriers holding a community license were given the right of cabotage, i.e. the right to operate domestic routes within the whole of the EU.
liberalization that took place in Europe,
1987.surgiu from the UK and Ireland, which allowed
market entry of the first low cost airline in Europe, Ryanair.
clearance process of the rest of Europe
tariffs aeries are reduced
permission to all airlines can transport passengers from their countries of origin to member states (3 and 4 freedom)
restrictions of tariffs and flight capability were abolished
licensing of airlines and freedom to access the market
all airlines carriers license communitarian now able to operate on international routes in the European union
all airlines carriers license...