This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Impact Of Low Cost Airlines On City Tourism In Europe: Policy Implications For Portugal. |

2189 words - 9 pages


Policy Issues in Tourism, Leisure and Sport |
The impact of low cost airlines on city tourism in Europe: policy implications for Portugal.
ECO3009-N-BJ1-2013 |


1-Justificacion of the topic 3
2-How/When the air companies appearing 3
3-Apperence of low Cost Airlines 5
4-Impacts of Low Cost Airlines In Tourist Activity: 6
5-Impact of Low Cost Airlines in Portugal 6
6-Measures taken by the Portuguese State 7
7-Conclusion : 8
8-References 9

1-Justificacion of the topic

Actuality tourism and transport had been one topic very explored, since the development of transport powered by technological development has been one of the essential ...view middle of the document...

The liberalization of the commercial air market only begin in the mid-80, first in some countries and later to the European Union
Before the liberalization process enters into force in Europe between 1987 and 1997, the transport sector little competition between airlines traditional, since tariffs were assigned by bilateral agreements between States, which imposed certain routes and airports, aircraft types, rates and frequencies of flights each company air. The ability of most routes was restricted rates were very high and the market entry of companies that were not traditional flag was almost impossible The first step to the liberalisation of aviation, occurred between Ireland and UK which created the conditions for the emergence of the first European low fares airline, Ryanair. Ryanair was permitted to enter certain routes between Ireland and the UK, bringing competition to the duopoly that has existed for years between the national airlines, Aer Lingus and British Airways
The liberalisation of European air transport was achieved in four stages:

i) In 1987, under the first package of liberalisation measures, fare restrictions were reduced. Carriers were also given additional flexibility for cooperation within the limits of existing air service agreements.

ii) In 1990 the so-called second package of liberalisation measures allowed all European airlines to carry passengers to and from their home countries to other EU Member States (3rd and 4th freedoms). Also 5th freedom flights, i.e. intra-European flights with stop-over in a third country and the right to pick-up and drop-off passengers during the stopover, were allowed to a greater extent. Fare and capacity restrictions were further abolished.

iii) In 1993 the third package of measures, including the common licensing of carriers and freedom of access to the market, was introduced. All carriers holding a community license were allowed to serve any international route within the European Union. Finally, carriers were given almost full freedom to set fares.

iv) In 1997, as part of the third liberalisation package, all carriers holding a community license were given the right of cabotage, i.e. the right to operate domestic routes within the whole of the EU.

liberalization that took place in Europe,
1987.surgiu from the UK and Ireland, which allowed
market entry of the first low cost airline in Europe, Ryanair.

clearance process of the rest of Europe

measures associated
tariffs aeries are reduced
permission to all airlines can transport passengers from their countries of origin to member states (3 and 4 freedom)
restrictions of tariffs and flight capability were abolished

1º pack

2º pack

licensing of airlines and freedom to access the market
all airlines carriers license communitarian now able to operate on international routes in the European union

3º pack

all airlines carriers license...

Other Papers Like The Impact of Low Cost Airlines on City Tourism in Europe: Policy Implications for Portugal. |

Impact Of Us Foreign Policy On The Vietnam War

3614 words - 15 pages Impact of US Foreign Policy on the Vietnam War The Vietnam War is one of the most talked about wars in history. It began in 1959 and did not end until 1975. These years saw protests, conflicts, casualties, and confusion for the United States, as well as the terms of three presidents: John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Richard Nixon. When U.S. involvement in the war began under Kennedy, it was originally put out as a plan for the United

Impact of Tourism Essay

1150 words - 5 pages erosion and acid rain.All kinds of ecosystems are becoming affected.Thailand is littered with golf courses that consume large amounts of pesticides and water.There is hardly anywhere in the world not affected by tourism impact .Tourism is an aspect of globalisation most sensitive to any repercussion.In the eastern region of Spain for example,Benidorm has a great concentration of hotels,accommodating nearly half a million tourists in August within

Impact of Protectionism Trade Policy on Trade

5363 words - 22 pages a report on “Impact of protectionist trade policy on domestic industry and economy.” We feel great pleasure for submitting this report to you, which will definitely help us to be successful in our future life and to complete the BBA program. During the preparation of this report, we have experienced a lot that will greatly help us in our further studies and carrier life. It has enlightened our practical knowledge in the practical world of

The Social Impact on Social Policy

890 words - 4 pages arrangements can further assist the individual in receiving the services necessary for rehabilitation, as transient tendencies of the homeless population further restrict continual services to render and the ability to study and create programs to assist in policy enactments. References Barlett, J. (2007). CHSRF synthesis: Interprofessional collaboration and quality primary healthcare. , 1(1). Retrieved from

Classic Airlines: One of the Biggest Airlines in the World

1423 words - 6 pages company’s CRM software has been greatly criticized by many as not being fully utilized to its full potential. Given the substantial investment in this software, the company’s expectations were that, on top of being used to make reservation and travel bookings, the software would also be used to generate and gather market and consumer data; clearly, this is not the case right now. The opportunity that lies ahead for Classic Airlines is to utilize

The Effect Of The Internet On Tourism

2120 words - 9 pages longer the need to spend extra money on a travel agent when it can all be done with a few clicks from home. (7) Not only can you book your vacation online, you can confirm it all as well. This allows you to be sure that you get exactly what you wanted. When a travel agent books it for you, you don’t know exactly what you are getting. Financial Impact The tourism economy is recognized as one of the fastest growing activities in

A Study on the Factors Affecting the Failing Grades of 2nd Year and 3rd Year Tourism Students in the University of the East-Manila for S.Y 2011-2012

2380 words - 10 pages University of the East, Manila College of arts and sciences A Study on the Factors Affecting the Failing Grades of 2nd year and 3rd year Tourism Students in the University of the East-Manila For S.Y 2011-2012 In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Tourism Research Method Tour 112 By: Honey Grace R. Gatasi July 2012 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Being in school is one of the

Acceptability of a Low-Cost Medical Diagnostic Test System in Philippine Barangay Health Centers

2453 words - 10 pages Recoletos de Bacolod Graduate PhD-Business Management University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Bacolod City Business Research NAME: Evans B. Sansolis Acceptability of a Low-Cost Medical Diagnostic Test System in Philippine Barangay Health Centers CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Project Context The Philippines is a third world country wherein a large number of its citizens living in urban and rural areas subsist below the poverty line

The Effect Of The Internet On Tourism

2219 words - 9 pages global tourism and an important focus for academics in the field of tourism studies. Many stakeholders, however, while enthusiastically embracing the concept of ecotourism as defined above, still do not really understand what it means: what activities qualify, who participates, where it occurs, what impact is acceptable, or how it can be optimally managed. A balanced and comprehensive exposure to the growing knowledge base of ecotourism that will

Implications for the Future

2940 words - 12 pages and flash floods," 2012). Economic, Political, and Legal Implications of Houston's Flooding The Revised policies, originally established by the Harris County Flood Control District and City of Houston, concentrate on addressing the flood and drainage concerns, and inspect the proposed courses of action developed by local governments. There are three sections of government liable for the city’s storm water drainage; flood damage lessening and

• Assess the Impact of Fiscal and Monetary Policy on Business Organisations and Their

2618 words - 11 pages economy. The UK will need to be careful that this does not happen, as inflation has been on the increase. Inflation means a sustained increase in the aggregate or general price level in an economy. Inflation means there is an increase in the cost of living. It is the Bank of England’s job to maintain the value of money by keeping the rate of inflation at a low level. Inflation in the UK is fairly low today, but it used to be much higher. In the 1970s

Related Essays

Impact Of Tourism On Environment Essay

631 words - 3 pages Vu Thu Phuong Student ID: 30110714 Topic: The Impact of Tourism on Environment In recent years, the tourism industry is considered as an important economic sector in many countries around the world, including Vietnam. Although tourism industry brings tremendous benefits to a country’s development, the impact of tourism on natural habitat cannot be denied. In this essay, I will discuss both positive and negative impact of tourism on our

An Impact Of Brand Elements On Brand Awareness The Case Of Oppo Smartphones In Hcm City

5654 words - 23 pages brand among consumers in Ho Chi Minh City - Identify dimensions of brand elements that have impact on the OPPO’s brand awareness - Give suggestions and recommendations for OPPO company in other to increase customer’s brand awareness 1.4 Scope and limitation The research conducted with relatively small sample, which only covered the smartphone users in some of mobile phone stores in HCMC such as: FPT shop, Vienthong A

Wal Mart: The High Cost Of A Low Price

587 words - 3 pages Wal-Mart: The High Cost of a Low Price Wal-Mart represents the sickness of capitalism at its almost fully evolved state. As Jim Hightower said, "Why single out Wal-Mart? Because it's a hog. Despite the homespun image it cultivates in its ads, it operates with an arrogance and avarice that would make Enron blush and John D. Rockefeller envious. It's the world's biggest retail corporation and America's largest private employer; Sam Robson

Proposal For Preparation Of A Tourism Plan Or Policy

3975 words - 16 pages also impact on this. These are the main areas where change can be implemented on all levels to ensure that all companies in the industry are complying with set standards. Effects of Climate Change on Tourism Climate affects a wide range of the environmental resources that are critical attractions for tourism, such as snow conditions, wildlife productivity and biodiversity, water levels and quality, while also influencing deterrents to