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The House Essay

1271 words - 6 pages

A Brief History of UNIX
• Originally developed at AT&T Bell Labs
– Late 1960s and early 1970s
– Distributed in source code form

• Two standard versions evolved:
– AT&T Bell Labs produced SystemV (SysV)
– UC Berkeley developed BSD

• Linux might be considered a more integrated
version of UNIX than its predecessors
• POSIX: effort of experts from industry, academia,
and government to standardize UNIX


UNIX Concepts


Linux and UNIX
• Linux is a UNIX-like operating system
– Not written from the traditional UNIX code
– Kernel created to look and act like UNIX
• Enhancements include the POSIX standards
• Linus Torvalds released it free of charge in 1991

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Connecting to UNIX/Linux Using
Telnet or SSH
• Telnet is a terminal emulation program
– Example: telnet

• Computers in a network are identified by IP
address and (sometimes) a domain name
– Examples:,

• Secure Shell (SSH) was developed for UNIX/Linux
systems to provide authentication for TCP/IP
– Example: ssh user@hostname


Logging In to UNIX/Linux



Using Commands
• To interact with UNIX/Linux, you enter a command
– UNIX/Linux are case sensitive
• John differs from john

– Two categories:
• User-level commands
• System-administration commands

– Must know a command’s syntax to enter it properly
• Need to know options and arguments

– Commands are typed on the command line


The date Command

-u option displays the time in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

The cal Command

-j option used to determine the Julian date


The who Command
• Determines information about who is logged in
– Important for the administrator
– Commonly used options include:

am I for information about your session
whoami to see what account you are using
-H to show column headings
-u to show idle time for each user
-q for a quick list and total of users logged in
-b to verify when the system was last booted


The clear Command
• As you continue to enter commands, your screen
might become cluttered
• Use the clear command to clear your screen
– No options or arguments


The man Program
• Online manual called the man pages



The man Program (continued)
• History section shows that command appeared in
Version 6 AT&T UNIX


The whatis Command
• Administrator may need to execute whatis to create
database first


Command-line Editing
• Shells support certain keystrokes for performing
command-line editing
– Bash supports ß and à to move cursor



Multiple Command Entries
• Type multiple commands on command line by
separating them with a semicolon
– date ; cal


The Command-line History
• Most shells keep a list of recently used commands
– You can recall a command without retyping it
• Access command history with up/down arrow keys
• Press Enter to execute command once you find it

– Feature saves time and decreases frustration


Logging Out of UNIX/Linux
• When you are done, log out for security
– Ends your current process
– Indicates to OS you are finished
– For the Bourne, Korn, or Bash shells:
• Enter exit on command line
• Or, press Ctrl+d

– In C shell, enter logout on the command line

• However, if you are using a GUI, these commands
will only close terminal window
– Use the Log Out option for the desktop instead



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