The History of the Internet
The Internet is the latest and most powerful invention that has expanded the world’s communication. It has greater effects on our civilization than any other previous inventions. It has reached every corner of the globe. It has interconnected the world and created an electronic village. Unlike any previous human inventions, the Internet is a wide common resource for all people. Anyone can say whatever he/she wants to say and this can be heard by anyone else with access to the Internet. Cairncross (2001) states “never has anyone invention shot from obscurity to global flame in quite this way” (p.75). According to Cairncross, in 1990, only a few academics had ...view middle of the document...
Although the two countries were not involved in a real war, the US government was concerned about a possibility of a nuclear attack. This period is known as the Cold War. After the Soviet Union had launched the first space satellite, Sputnik, on October, 1957, the US government decided to catch up with the Soviet Union technology. It managed to “connect major computing centers around the United States so that they could work together and communicate” (Wolinsky, 1999, p. 8).
Then, the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) decided to make use of computers for national defense. After many trials, ARPA found a company, BBN Technologies, willing to work with them. The ARPANET used Network Control Protocol as its transmission protocol from 1969 to 1982, when NCP was replaced with the now-widespread TCP/IP.
The first large-scale Internet was created when a set US military computers was interconnected. For the first twenty years of its existence, the Internet was restricted to use by military and universities for the exchange of information. It was found to be an excellent method of sharing information. In 1973, the first international connection was made to the University College of London in England.
The introduction of personal computers in the late 70s brought a large new audience to the development of the Internet. The Internet was growing very rapidly and IRC (Internet Relay Chat) became available in 1988. IRC is a service that allows you to connect to your chosen channel and talk in real-time to people with the same interests as you.
The World-Wide Web
The Internet and World-Wide Web are the greatest telecommunicational breakthrough since the telephone. The huge growth that the web has enjoyed in the last decade has come very quickly. The World-Wide Web was introduced only in 1992 and there were 50 pages on the www. Researchers quickly got interested and started designing web sites and browsers. The www was quickly the most popular service on the Internet. It was around 1995 when the first large ISPs (Internet Service Providers) like...