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The Historical Development Of Nursing Essay

1326 words - 6 pages

The Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
University of Phoenix
Theoretical Foundations of Practice
NUR/513
Alexandra Winter
December 7, 2013

The Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
The nursing profession continues to develop and transform in practice and roles mostly due to the development of nursing models and theories that promote evidence based practice. Nursing remains a profession of caring and service. The pioneers of this profession revolutionized this career and have allowed nursing to evolve while concurrently finding ways to provide better care.
The earliest nurses did not attend nursing school; they were often women who provided care for the poor, sick ...view middle of the document...

Hildegard Peplau (1952) – Interaction Theorist/Interpersonal Relations Model
The American Nurses Association (n.d.) states, “Peplau introduced the nurse-patient relationship idea 40 years ago, a time when patients did not actively participate in their own care” ("Hildegard Peplau," n.d., para. 2). She was the first published nursing theorist since Florence Nightingale. Some of the major concepts of her theory are the identification of patient felt difficulties, human relation application, the phases of interpersonal process, and roles in nursing situations.
Ida Jean Orlando (1961) – Interaction Theorist/Deliberative Nursing Process
Ida Jean Orlando was one of the first nursing theorists to write about the nursing process based on her own research. Her theory focuses on the interaction of the nurse with the patient, perception validation, and the use of the nursing process to produce positive outcomes or patient improvement.
Martha Rogers (1970) – Outcome Theorist/Unitary Human Beings
Martha Rogers is known for developing the Science of Unitary Human Beings and for publishing, An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing. Rogers specialized in public health and established the Visiting Nurse Service of Phoenix. Her theory is based on the maintenance and promotion of health, prevention and the care and rehabilitation of the ill and disabled patient through humanistic science.
Dorothy Johnson (1980) – Outcome Theorist/Behavioral Systems Model
Dorothy Johnson first proposed her model of nursing care in 1968 as fostering the efficient and effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness. According to Meleis (2011), “Johnson’s theory embodies an analytical model of what a nursing client is and the problems a client manifests when she or he experiences an illness. It is a theory developed to answer the questions; What is nursing? How different is nursing from medicine? When does a person become a nursing client?”(Meleis, 2011, p. 285).
Middle Range Theorist – Narrow in scope, Concepts and Propositions are at a Lower Level of Abstraction
Cheryl Cox (1982) – Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior
This model describes elements of client singularity, and client-professional interaction that contribute to elements of health outcomes. One element of health outcomes is client satisfaction.
Nola J. Pender (1996) – Health Promotion Model
Nola Pender’s model focuses on three areas 1) Individual characteristics and experiences, 2) Behavior-specific cognitions and affects, 3) Behavioral outcomes.
Katharine Kolcaba (2001) Theory of Comfort
Katherine Kolcaba describes comfort as existing in three forms 1) Relief, 2) Ease, 3) Transcendence. She also describes 4 contexts in which the patient’s comfort can occur: physical, psychospiritual, environmental and sociocultural.
Practice Theory – Seeks to Explain the Relationship between Human Action and the ‘System”
Marion Good and Shirley Moore (1996) –...

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