This literature review is focusing on discussing the effects of seclusion and restraints on treatment consequences of patients in mental health area. Seclusion and Restraint are used for controlling the behavioral patterns of the mentally ill patients in different surroundings consisting of psychiatric management facilities and hospitals (Kentley, 2009). Over past decade, comprehensible consensus has come out that seclusion and restraints are secure interventions of last alternative and application of those interventions should and can be diminished significantly (Knight, 2011). However, recent studies indicated that it is traumatic for patients experiencing or witnessing ...view middle of the document...
In searching for available and relevant literatures the keywords are: “definition of seclusion and restrains”; “effects of seclusion and restrains on treatment outcomes”; “effects of seclusion and restrains on the treatment outcomes of mentally ill patients”.
Brief overview of the evidence
According to Soininen et.al, (2013) seclusion and restraints do not significantly influence the quality of life of the patient or the control is short-lived. They have searched whether experienced restraint and seclusion affect psychological patients’ personal quality of life at discharge. The aim of their paper was to diminish the application of coercion by almost 40% within 2015. Developing the quality of life of the patient has received prominence in the area of mental treatment during past decade. Various studies have demonstrated that most restrained or secluded patients would favor not to suffer this experience (Brown et al, 2012) (Change et al, 2014) (Gaskin, Elsom & Happell, 2007) (Soininen et al, 2013). The understanding of restraint and seclusion could have a negative effect on patients’ quality of life; but experiential data on these issues are lacking. Klotz (2010) also mentioned that it was uncertain because the baseline quality of life was uncalculated. The researchers have also identified that apart from this, other negative factors like negative mood can decrease patients’ quality of life ratings. These factors might either cover the control of restrains and seclusion on quality of life or amend the understanding of quality of life to such a level that independent association could be found at patients’ discharge time (Klotz, 2010).
Gaskin et al. have concentrated on the interventions for diminishing the application of seclusion in mental facilities (Gaskin, Elsom, & Happell, 2007). The researchers have concluded the application of non-pharmacological suppression methods; excluding seclusion and restraints, was not backed up by evidence. They have focused on controlled and randomized trials. In this paper, professional typically applied multiple interventions, comprising state-level aid; state guideline and policy changes; leadership; assessments of practice contexts; improvement of treatment plan; staff integration; increased personnel to the patient ratios; monitoring seclusion phases; mental emergency response teams; professional education; patient monitoring; psychological interventions; treating patients as active participants in the interventions of seclusion reduction; altering therapeutic environment; altering facility environment; adopting facility focus and improving the safety of the staff and welfare. They have concluded that the seclusion reduction rates are demanding and usually necessitate staff to execute several interventions.
Another research article by Daryl et al. has focused on the avoidance and use of restraint and seclusion (Knox & Holloman, 2012). In this paper, researchers have discussed various aspects of...