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The Efeects Of Salivary Amylase On Starch Hydrolysis Under Different Ph Levels

746 words - 3 pages

Introduction Enzymes are catalytic molecules made up of proteins which speed up specific reactions. Such reactions occur when atoms or molecules come together and form new, more stable relationships. Enzymes are not permanently altered or used up in a reaction; they can be used over and over again. An enzyme is also highly selective of its substrates. Substrates are molecules that a specific enzyme can chemically recognize, bind, and modify in a specific way, which in this experiment, are the starch molecules(Starr, 1994).The procees by which strarch is broken down is called starch hydrolysis. When this occurs, polysaccharide starch molecules are broken down into modified forms known as disacharides. This process is activated by the salivary enzyme within the mouth which catalyses polysacharides into maltose, a disaccharide. Maltose is then further broken down into simple sugars(glucose) by maltase, another enzyme.These ...view middle of the document...

0, 7.0, and 8.0. All 11 tubes in each row were then labeled in reference to seconds: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, and 300. A "blank tube" was obtained and 3 mL of distilled water and 1 drop of potassium iodine was diluted into the tube.The enzyme collected in this experiment is salivary amylase from the mouth. Which was obtained by having one individual in a group chew on a small piece of Parafilm wax paper. The first 2-3mL of saliva were discarded since they contain more water than the actaul enzyme. The next 5 mL of saliva were placed into a beaker and then diluted with with 15 mL of distilled water.The serial dilution preparation was made using three 125mL flasks, labeling each: ½, ¼, and 1/8. Then 75 mL of distilled water was added to each flask. The "1/2" flask had 75mL of a 1% starch solution added to it and then mixed. 75ml were then taken from the "1/2" flask and then added to the the "1/4" flask solution. Then 75mL of the "1/4" solution was then was added to the "1/8" falsk. All solution in the flasks was discarded and the flasks cleaned except for the "1/8" flask. The "1/8" flask was then further diluted with approximately 120mL of distilled water to decrease the starch solution to now "1/16." The buffer stock preparation used the 3 cleaned flasks mentioned above and each labelled: pH 5.0, pH 7.0, and pH 8.0. Furthermore, 25 mL of the appropriate pH buffer solution was added to the properly labelled flask accordingly. For example, pH buffer of 5.0 added to pH of 5.0 flask. A 1 mL enzyme solution was then added to each flask, mixed, and then incubated for 5 minutes.The next steps were performed individually in accordance to pH levels at 30 second intervals.Each pH flask was diluted with 25 mL of the 1/16 starch solution. First the pH of 5.0 was performed then the following 7.0, and 8.0 pHs. Then 3 mL of the mixed solution in the "5.0 flask" was pippetted into each of the eleven 5.0 cuvettes. One drop of KI was added to each cuvette and then read at an absorbancy of 560nm at thirty second intervals for a period of 5 minutes. The same was repeated for each the flasks labeled 7.0 and 8.0.

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