The Discussion Of The Change In Public Relations Scholarship Through A Socio Cultural Turn

2227 words - 9 pages

Introduction
The view on public relations scholarship has been rapidly changing over the past few generations. Public relations scholarship in the past focus on the government, public and the communication process. With the social-cultural turn in the society, public relations scholarship has shifted to the study of the relationships between the government and the public. This essay will focus on the discussion of the change in public relations scholarship through a socio-cultural turn.
Previous Public Relations Scholarship
As stated by Grunig&Hunt (1984), public relations is defined as “the management of communications between thegovernment and its publics”. Using this as a ...view middle of the document...

However, as culture starts to evolve, the public gets more educated and starts to have a mind-set of their own, making it harder for the government to manipulate the public with information they choose to present. With the effect of globalisation and advancement in technology, the availability of information for people across the world has been increased widely. The governmentwill now have to understand that public relations is no longer about just itself, but also the public. Thus, the “one-way communication” evolved into a new method called the “two-way communication”. “One way communication” still does exist in some parts of the world, mainly communist state countries where the government have mostly the only say.
The “two-way communication” consists of two models, namely the “two-way asymmetrical communication” and “two-way symmetrical communication”. These two models are based on a two-way communication from the government to the public. “Two way communication” can be seen in democracy society where the government and public try to come to terms on example, proposed laws. “Two-way asymmetrical communication” is a form of public relation which uses social science theory and research about attitudes and behaviours to persuade the public to accept the government’s point of view and to behave in a way that supports the government. “Two-way symmetrical communication” is the other form of public relations which uses mutual understanding between the government and the public as its ultimate goal. This method usually end with a solution which would benefit both the government and the public. The practice of “two-way communication” is being implemented as it allows more audience participation. As the public grows more educated and exposed to other culture, the desire and needs of different groups of people are also being shared and understood by more people. Learning has become more democratic in nature and the government is now more open to feedbacks. By implementing the “two-way communication”, it is now possible for the government to influence the behaviour of the public although it is slower and takes a longer time.
The “two-way communication” between the government and the public was relatively fair, with dialogues in place engaging both parties. However, although the “two-way communication” promotes more mutual respect and understanding for each other, it also faces a lot of challenges as the public is now more and more knowledgeable. Although the ‘two-way communication” is an ideal method of communication, it is realistically unachievable as it does not take into consideration the difference of the powers between the government and the public. This require the government to take up a more complex and integrated approach towards the public.
Current Public Relations Scholarship
New scholarships nowadays has been criticizing the old theories of Grunig& Hunt, due to the globalisation, which affected the change of the social-cultural...

Other Papers Like The Discussion of the Change in Public Relations Scholarship Through a Socio-Cultural Turn

Turn of the Screw Essay

1613 words - 7 pages Turning the Screw: Analysing Douglas’s Tale In this essay I will be exploring the narrative style present in “Turn of the Screw” by Henry James and discussing the character called Douglas as a frame narrator for the governess’s tale. I will explore the reliability of Douglas and his relationship with the governess and look at any bias caused by this relationship. I will be analysing the narrative style of the novella, and discussing how this

Turn of the Screw Essay

1100 words - 5 pages TURN OF THE SCREW: James, Henry TAKES PLACE IN THE COUNTRY GOVERNESS NOT CONCERNED W NATURE-ONLY WORRIED ABOUT GHOSTS NO ORGANIZED RELIGION A An anonymous narrator recalls a Christmas Eve gathering at an old house, where guests listen to one another’s ghost stories. A guest named Douglas introduces a story that involves two children—Flora and Miles—and his sister’s governess, with whom he was in love. After procuring the governess’s

Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism

3280 words - 14 pages Topic: Socio-Cultural impacts of tourism Tourism considered as global phenomenon which is carried out by persons itself. This naturally results in meeting of different culture, economy, progress, status, etc. round the globe. Human being considered as social animal cause’s significant social culture impact by tourism. According to Teo (1994) impacts are defined as “change in value system, moral, conduct, individual behaviour, relationship

Helping Your Kids Become Good Cyber Citizens By Example - A Discussion On The Prevention Of Software Piracy Through Leadership In The Home

1114 words - 5 pages of piracy and help them develop responsible online behaviors, BSA and Weekly Reader, an education company best known for its children's newspaper, have co-written a school curriculum for kids in grades three through eight. Teachers can use the free activity kit to lead classroom discussions about why creativity and copyright law matter, the dangers of unethical software use, how the $11 billion software piracy problem affects others, and why

Europe On The Brink Of Change At The Turn Of The 20th Century

1952 words - 8 pages Europe on the Brink of Change at the Turn of the 20th Century By the turn of the 20th century Europe had undergone massive changes which had eventually pushed it into war. The main forces behind these changes were 1. Nationalism 2. Militarism 3. Imperialism 4. Socialism 5. Alliances 6. Unification These ideas and systems threatened the balance of power which caused a major

The Governess In The Turn Of The Screw

1113 words - 5 pages One of the most critically discussed works in twentieth-century American literature, The Turn of the Screw has inspired a variety of critical interpretations since its publication in 1898. Until 1934, the book was considered a traditional ghost story. Edmund Wilson, however, soon challenged that view with his assertions that The Turn of the Screw is a psychological study of the unstable governess whose visions of ghosts are merely delusions

"A Turn Of The Screw" By Henry James

726 words - 3 pages The Governess In The Turn of the Screw by Henry James is Driven to Paranoia and Insanity by her Fear of the Position.The plausibility of the governess' story in A Turn of the Screw by Henry James really revolves around whether or not the reader believes that ghosts could exist. At first, I believed in the credibility of the governess because of all the strange events that surrounded her arrival at the estate. The governess, although seemingly

Ghosts In Henry James Turn Of The Screw

661 words - 3 pages The Turn of the Screw:  Ghosts         Lawrence Kramer poses some interesting ideas about Henry James’ The Turn of the Screw mainly by discussing the ghosts in the story. He refers to the ghosts as revenants; “a specter, a ghost, a phantom, one who haunts, who returns, who walks again.” First, he implies that these revenants can only work when a person believes they exist. There must be

“in Considering the Process of Change in Relations Between Ireland and Great Britain in the Years 1815-1922, How Far Can the Irish Potato Famine (1845-1851) Be Seen as a Key Turning Point?”

2068 words - 9 pages Over the years 1815-1922, the process of change in relation between Ireland and Great Britain can be due to a variety of events. One could argue the Irish Potato Famine was the key turning point which was brought on by a blight which destroyed the potatoes and crops which were Ireland’s main source of food. However, over the period of time, other events also influenced the change in relations, including: Catholic Emancipation, Home Rule Bill and

Definition Of Public Relations

1056 words - 5 pages fairly broad compared to the numerous variations that are worldwide. Concentrating on persuasion of attitudes is a major aspect of public Relations. It is imperative to have a favorable public opinion of an institution. Public opinion equals customer opinion. It is well known that in order to keep your customers happy and continuing to invest in your goods and services, an institution must keep their best interest in mind. Through efforts

Functions Of Public Relations

1130 words - 5 pages . Employment is projected to increase through 2010" (Seitel, 2004). The need by organizations for good public relations will lead to specialists in the field and this will dictate a more specific public relations campaign. With designated functions, the organization will be more prepared to create a campaign that will be competitive and justify the organization's desire to be number one in their line of business. "Private and public organizations

Related Essays

The Turn Of A Screw Essay

756 words - 4 pages This novel was, surprisingly, in a way that was not all too completely unaware to me – for I could discern my own thoughts concerning the book – interesting. The intensely complex and intricate (if not confusing!) sentences, upon first thought, made me expect an experience of complete, utter, and total confusion; however, they served not only to keep my interest in the novel – for I had to concentrate to grasp the full, rich meaning of his

Ethics In The Public Relations Industry

2134 words - 9 pages ethos, particularly when combined with the short-term rewards that one may gain through less ethical actions, it is certainly not hard to understand how many of the ‘spin doctor’ headlines come about. I have chosen to examine ethics in the PR industry as I believe the subject to be particularly topical and of significant importance to the long-term legitimacy of the profession. As the potential ethical issues that a public relations

The Value And Necessity Of Public Relations

1790 words - 8 pages summer visa arrangement as part of a longtime State Department program that allows the students to work for two months, then get some travel and cultural enrichment in the U.S.. Hershey hard tried to deflect the blame from itself to subcontractors. Public relations are not as influenced as advertisements because you aren’t trying to sell a product to the audience. You aren’t trying to be persuaded to buy an item, you are given information about a

Socio Cultural Barriers Faced By Coca Cola In India And Solutions To Overcome The Issues

3369 words - 14 pages SOCIO CULTURAL BARRIERS FACED BY COCA-COLA IN INDIA AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME THE ISSUES CONTENTS 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 2. TERMS OF REFERENCE 3 3. CURRENT SCENARIO 3 4. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION 4 4.1. STRENGTH 5 4.2. WEEKNESS 5 4.3. OPPORTUNITIES 5 4.4. THREATS 5 5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6 5.1. PUBLIC RELATIONS 6 5.2. ENHANCE RELATIONSHIP WITH GOVERNMENT 6 5.3. LAUNCH MARKETING