The following essay will trace the development of Human Resource Management/Personnel Management. Within this essay the origins of personnel management will be described and how the Human Resource Management (HRM) developed from that process. A brief discussion on the development of the ‘factory system’ and a description of the employee working conditions within these ‘factory systems’ will be discussed. Also included will be an outline on how these ‘factory systems’ operated and what this meant for the employees.
The development of the ‘Welfare Tradition’ will be discussed and how it relates the Human Resource Management of today. The role the ‘welfare officers’ played in ...view middle of the document...
The procedure used by the HRM in recruitment will be described, and by describing this procedure, we will clearly see the changes in relation to the growth of the Personnel/Human Resource development.
HRM and Personnel Management are two different types of management. HRM was developed from the process of Personnel management. Personnel management in Ireland originated in the late eighteenth century with the growth of a ‘factory system’. The ‘factory system’ was a system in which people with access to large amounts of capital would employ people to produce goods in large quantities for bigger markets. Workers had little political or economic power, which meant they had no way to voice any concerns relating to their working conditions. The working condition of these factories was very poor, bad lighting, poor sanitary systems and little or no heating. Along with the poor working conditions, labourers had to work long hours for low pay, all this to maintain existing profit levels or increase them. There were no such things as sick pay, pensions and basic health and safety and welfare provisions (Gunnigle et al, 2006), things which we have become accustomed to today.
With the new ‘Factory System’, people needed direction, machinery needed to be maintained and production needed to be controlled. During this time emerged what is known as the ‘Welfare Tradition’. First brought in by mainly Quaker owned firms in Britain in the late 1800’s, a lot of changes brought in by these were influenced by their religious beliefs. These employers sought to improve the working conditions of their labourers. They would employ so called ‘welfare officers’. The welfare officer’s role was not only key to the labourer, but also to the employer, to use methods that brought the most immediate benefits to his factory. In a labour market when employee cooperation is at a premium, the main role of a welfare officer can be characterised as a ‘caring one’ (Bratton and Gold, 1999). In 1919 two organisations, the Welfare Workers and the North Western Area Industrial Association, joined forces to form a news body, the Welfare Workers Institute. The significance of the welfare tradition and its influence in HRM practice is evident in the modern HRM role in areas such as counselling, employee assistant programmes, and health issues, working conditions and health and safety.
Scientific Management was another important influence on the emergence of HRM. Scientific management was developed in the late part of the nineteenth century. It was in response to issues raised in industrialisation. Industrialisation was made possible with the development of technological advances. The development potential of these technological advances could not be realised by adopting traditional practices of craft and farm workers. (Gunnigle et al, 2006). This was realised by F.W. Taylor and his ‘divisions of labour’ principle.
Taylor brought together the principles that formed the scientific...