The Communication Process Notes Essay

1421 words - 6 pages

The Communication Process
- communication : the sharing of messages
- intrapersonal
communication within oneself
- interpersonal
direct sharing of experience between two people
- group communication
small group
- mass communication
communication from one person of group of persons through a transmitting device (a medium or channel) to large, diverse audiences
Mass Media Definitions
- mass media are industries or businesses that create and distribute the following to large numbers of people:
songs, novels, newspapers
- MM are key institutions in society that affect our culture, buying habits, politics, etc
- MM are profit-centered ...view middle of the document...

postmodern values

* Functions of mass media
1. to inform or educate public
2. to survey the environment/ act as a watchdog: surveillance **MOST IMPORTANT THING MEDIA CAN DO FOR US**
3. to transmit our cultural heritage/ values: socialization
don’t have affairs
4. to entertain
5. to persuade
advertising, commercials, political campaigns
6. to make money- the media
* Why should we care about media research?
- Media research helps shape public policies towards media industries
ratings systems (movies – g, pg, pg13, r)
what’s regulated and what’s not
how to regulate
- Theories shape how research is conducted, how much money is dedicated to which projects
- Types of media offered often depends on what research shows we like
- For businesses
- Determine audience numbers for shows or networks
determines advertising rates
determines type of programs produced in future
- Helps determine what type of media campaigns have been effective
- Helps determine type of messages that are effective
businesses, nonprofit organizations, politicians
Media research methodology
- social scientific research
laboratory experiments
content analysis
- cultural studies
textual analysis – movie, television program, song
audience studies
political economy studies – power, power structure
focus groups – show group and ask their opinions
Early concerns of media effects
- concerns about media effects have been around a long time
- propaganda analysis – control of opinion by significant symbols…
- public opinion research
examined how the mass media filter info and shape public attitudes
influential during political events such as elections
unreliability of pseudo polls – not accurate representation
- social psychology studies
measured behavior, attitudes, and cognition of individuals
Payne fund (1929-1933)
sleep patterns
attitudes about violence
delinquent behavior
knowledge of foreign cultures
found negative and positive effects
Payne studies contributed to establishment of film industry’s production code – killer had to die at end of move, no promiscuous girls no sex during 1950’s
-marketing research
emerged in 1920’s
evaluated consumer buying habits and media use
listening to radio
bought which products
advertisers and product companies used to track consumer preferences
- Hypodermic needle (magic bullet) model
media “shoots” effects directly into audience
media ideas directly affect people’s behavior
proven untrue
- minimal effects model
media alone don’t cause people to change their attitudes and beliefs
selective exposure reinforces existing beliefs- you only expose yourself to certain messages that you already believe, not a lot of different messages
selective retention means people retain messages that confirm existing values
people who are most influenced by media are those who don’t already have a strong view

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