The Cold War Essay

3106 words - 13 pages

What is the content of this essay?This essay deals mainly in outlining the cold war and its consequences posative/negative.IntroductionWhen World War II in Europe finally came to an end on May 7, 1945, anew war was just beginning. The Cold War: denoting the open yet restrictedrivalry that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union andtheir respective allies, a war fought on political, economic, andpropaganda fronts, with limited recourse to weapons, largely because offear of a nuclear holocaust.1 This term, The Cold War, was first used bypresidential advisor Bernard Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947.Intelligence operations dominating this war have been conducted by ...view middle of the document...

This organization had fallen into the disfavor of many involved in thefederal administration at this time. This included the director of theFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover, who did not likecompetition from a rival intelligence organization. With the death ofRoosevelt in April of 1945, the OSS was disbanded under Truman anddepartments were either relocated or completely dissolved. Sovietintelligence began with the formation of the Cheka, secret police, underFeliks Dzerzhinsky at the time of the revolution. By 1946, this agency hadevolved into the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), and the Ministry ofState Security (MGB) both ruled by Lavrenti Beria. This man was undoubtedlythe most powerful man in the Soviet Union with a vast empire of prisoncamps, and informants to crush any traces of dissent. Of considerableimportance to Beria was the race for the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union andthe United States both plundered the German V-2 rocket sites for materialsand personnel. In 1946 the MVD was responsible for the rounding up of 6000scientists from the Soviet zone of Germany and taking them and theirdependents to the Soviet Union.2 The political conflicts of the 1930's andWorld War II left many educated people with the impression that onlycommunism could combat economic depression and fascism. It was easy forSoviet agents to recruit men who would later rise to positions of powerwith access to sensitive information. 'Atom spies' were well positioned tokeep the Soviets informed of every American development on the bomb. Ofconsiderable importance was a man by the name of Klaus Fuchs, a Germancommunist who fled Hitler's purge and whose ability as a nuclear physicistearned him a place on the Manhattan Project. Fuchs passed information tothe Soviets beginning in 1941, and was not arrested until 1950. Alsopassing secrets to the Soviets were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed inthe United States in 1953. The latter two were probably among the first whobelieved in nuclear deterrence, whereby neither country would use nuclearweapons because the other would use his in response, therefore there wouldbe no ssible winner. It is generally believed that with such scientists asAndrei Sakharov, the Soviets were capable of working it out for themselveswithout the help of intelligence. (better transition) The National SecurityAct of 1947 gave birth to the CIA, and in 1949 the CIA Act was formallypassed. "The act exempted the CIA from all Federal laws that required thedisclosure of 'functions, names, official titles, and salaries or number ofpersonnel employed by the agency'. The director was awarded staggeringpowers, including the right to 'spend money without regard to theprovisions of law and regulations relating to the expenditure of governmentfunds'. The act also allowed the director to bring in 100 aliens a yearsecretly."3 The 1949 charter is essentially the same one that the CIA usesto carry out covert operations today.The U-2 IncidentIn...

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