The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement was a series of political movements for equality before the laws peaked in the 1960’s. During the period of 1954-1965, many gains were made in the progress of desegregation. In 1954, the landmark case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas deemed that separate education facilities for the races were unconstitutional. Though the ruling was a significant victory in the movement, the process of overturning segregation was just beginning (Beacham, T. Gilmartin, B., Grobman, S, Ling, C., & Rhee, V. (Producers), Libretto, J. (Director), 2004). In 1964, the passing of The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination in employment practices and public accommodations. In 1965, The Voter Rights Act insured all citizens had the right to vote and eliminated discriminatory “tricks” often used ...view middle of the document...
Women, through voices like Gloria Steinem, called for aid to female workers and poverty stricken mothers (Steinem, 1970). Organizations, like the American Indian Movement (AIM), called for an end to the mistreatment of American Indians by police and to improve prospects for jobs, education, and housing.
As the movement progressed, it also began to unravel in the mid 1960’s. Different views began to emerge on the heels of increasing riots and police brutality. Dr. Martin Luther King’s nonviolent tactics gave way to views from new African American leadership. Malcolm X began to spread messages of anti white propaganda and African pride (Bowles, 2011, Chapter 4:6). This leadership introduced a new agenda, Black Power. Stokely Carmichael, the 1966 chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), became the voice behind the Black Power Movement. After leaving the SNCC in 1967, he joined the Black Panther Party. Stokely believed that African Americans had become dehumanized until the point that they could not fight back, and the Black Panther Party agreed with African Americans fighting for their humanity (1970). The Black Panther Party worked in inner cities feeding the poor and securing medical attention for the sick while also gaining political power by winning elections in some urban areas.
Bowles, M. (2011). American History 1865–present: End of Isolation. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
1969). “The cycle of poverty”: Mexican-American migrant farmworkers testify before Congress. Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/7024.
(1970). “We must destroy the capitalistic system which enslaves us”: Stokely Carmichael advocates black revolution. Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6461.
Steinem, G. (1970). “All our problems stem from the same sex based myths”: Gloria Steinem delineates American gender myths during ERA hearings. Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/7025.