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The City In History Summary Of Chapters One, Two, Three

1452 words - 6 pages

Discussion
 1
 

Zenith
 Taskin
  211350345
 

In
 the
 first
 four
 chapters
 of
 his
 seminal
 book
 “The
 City
 in
 History”,
 Lewis
 Mumford
  demonstrates
 and
 outlines
 various
 vital
 issues
 that
 intertwine
 to
 explain
 the
 beginnings
 of
 the
  city
 and
 its
 various
 institutions,
 behaviors
 and
 social
 norms
 that
 exist
 within.
 The
 three
 key
  issues
 that
 are
 the
 most
 striking
 are
 the
 reason
 for
 the
 existence
 of
 cities
 aside
 from
 animal
  needs,
 the
...view middle of the document...

 Sauer
 and
 ties
 such
 a
  unique
 human
 trait
 with
 man’s
 fascination
 with
 the
 concept
 of
 death.
 Unlike
 any
 other
 animal
  counterpart,
 even
 the
 most
 primitive
 man’s
 trail
 demonstrates
 his
 interest,
 anxiety
 and
 respect
  for
 the
 dead.
 As
 Mumford
 muses
 over
 the
 continuous
 trade
 off
 in
 life
 between
 movement
 and
  settlement,
 he
 goes
 on
 to
 suggest
 that
 perhaps
 death
 “had
 an
 even
 greater
 role
 than
 more
  practical
 needs
 in
 causing
 [man]
 to
 seek
 a
 fixed
 meeting
 place
 and
 eventually
 a
 continuous
  settlement”
 (Lewis
 Mumford,
 1961,
 7).
 The
 evidence
 of
 the
 Paleolithic
 man’s
 fascination
 with
  death
 lies
 in
 the
 cavern,
 mound
 and
 collective
 barrow
 he
 has
 left
 behind.
 Such
 a
 preoccupation
  with
 the
 death
 not
 only
 establishes
 a
 spirituality
 in
 man,
 but
 also
 finds
 expression
 in
 caves
  where
 the
 Paleolithic
 man
 comes
 back
 again
 and
 again
 to
 perform
 rituals
 and
 illustrate
 vivid
  and
 imaginary
 paintings
 of
 life
 and
 death.
 Such
 a
 fascination
 with
 death
 thus
 also
 justifies
 how
  the
 Necropolis
 antedates
 the
 city
 of
 living
 as
 Mumford
 finally
 concludes
 that
 even
 though
  hunting
 and
 food
 gathering
 may
 not
 “encourage
 permanent
 occupation
 of
 a
 single
 site,
 the
  dead
 at
 least
 claim
 that
 privilege”
 (Lewis
 Mumford,
 1961,
 7).
 Thus
 it
 is
 not
 necessarily
 the
  animalistic
 needs
 that
 drive
 men
 to
 settlement,
 but
 their
 wonder
 and
 awe
 with
 the
 dead,
 which
  leads
 to
 the
 spiritual
 and
 ceremonial
 rites
 in
 the
 caves
 and
 finally
 “draws
 men
 into
 cities,
 where
  all
 the
 original
 feelings
 of
 awe,
 reverence,
 pride
 and
 joy
 [are]
 magnified
 by
 art
 and
 multiplied
 in
  responsive
 participants”
 (Lewis
 Mumford,
 1961,
 8).
  Permanent
 settlement
 is
 followed
 by
 general
 domestication,
 which
 is
 marked
 by
 the
  agricultural
 revolution.
 Although
 the
 man’s
 hunting
 skills,
 territorial
 nature
 and
 alertness
 were
  very
 useful,
 especially
 in
 the
 Paleolithic
 culture,
 the
 guarding,
...

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