The Chinese Civil War : Kmt Vs. Ccp

1426 words - 6 pages

The Chinese Civil War KMT vs. CCP

The Chinese civil war of 1946-49, is considered one of the most brutal and bloody conflicts near the final stages of the Second World War, which took the lives of millions of soldiers and civilians. The war was fought between two parties, the Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalists) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP or Reds). The leaders of these parties respectively were Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong. The war between the KMT and CCP wasn’t a new struggle but a continuation that dates back more than a couple decades and resumes after the Japanese had surrendered in 1945. In 1949, the better armed KMT were ultimately defeated by the CCP. The ...view middle of the document...

Desertion was very common within the armies and would result in the KMT forces being decimated. Chiang’s lack of etiquette policy with the peasants of China also played a role in showing the corruption of the KMT in plain view. Peasants were mistreated in that they were brutally beaten, killed, raped, and forced to hand over their own resources. Where management and corruption in the KMT was disastrous, the CCP was the exact opposite.

Mao Zedong who led the CCP to victory over the KMT was able to do so with his superior leadership and strategies that helped bolster the CCP’s position in the war. Even though the KMT had better equipment and outnumbered the CCP forces, Mao used his knowledge of guerrilla warfare and integrated its tactics within the CCP forces known as the “People’s Liberation Army” (PLA). The tactics used by the CCP were based on the awareness that “land could be retaken at a later date but men could not be brought back to life”. With that in mind, the CCP used the terrain around them to their advantage, employing in hit and run tactics, opting to retreat when the enemy advanced and attack when they camped or withdrew. This strategy on destroying armies regardless of location proved to be highly effective against the KMT’s traditional trench warfare, prepared fortifications and territorial control. Superior military tactics aside, Mao directed his armies into gaining the respect and aid of the Chinese peasants and by providing land reforms and health care. As I have stated before, the peasants of China were exposed to many mistreatments by the KMT. This mistreatment would cause the peasants to detest the KMT which in turn made it more favorable for the CCP to win over the general populace for where Mao saw the potential. Contrary to the KMT, with Mao’s instructions, the CCP treated the peasants with respect by following sensible policies called “Mao’s Eight Points”. The eight points directed the CCP soldiers to pay for everything used or consumed, return all borrowed items, pay for any damages that occur, not to swear or hit civilians, not to damage crops, not to take advantage of women and not to mistreat captives. These policies created by Mao would ensure the support of the peasants and in turn strengthen the CCP forces.

The majority of China’s population during this time period consisted mainly of poor peasants and so gaining the aid and support from them would be crucial to the CCP’s victory. The peasants, who were in favor of communism as everyone would be treated equal, helped the CCP soldiers who treated them nicely by providing food and shelter from the opposing KMT troops. Gaining popularity over the KMT, there was also an increased number of army volunteers from the peasants which was essential to the CCP since the KMT had the material superiority and higher soldier count. The CCP’s main strength lied within these peasant armed forces which were the backbone of its support base. Whereas...

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