This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Causes Of The Persian Gulf War

2156 words - 9 pages

The Causes of the Persian Gulf War     
     “Two dozen U.S. and British aircrafts bombed five radar and other anti-aircraft
sites around Baghdad with guided missiles yesterday in the first major military action of
the Bush administration. It was the largest airstrike against Iraq in two years and hit
sites near the Iraqi capital, a significant departure from the low-key enforcement of no-fly
zones in the country’s south and north. The U.S.-led alliance declared the zones
off-limits to Iraqi aircrafts after the Persian Gulf War. President Bush, speaking at a new
conference in Mexico alongside the Mexican President, Vicente Fox, called the ...view middle of the document...

     In order to better understand the Iraqi position, it is necessary to look at some of
the historical factors. The discovery of oil by the the Anglo-Persian Oil Company
(APOC; later renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and still later British Petroleum) in
Iran in 1908 stimulated a great interest in potential Iraqi oil resources. Financial groups
from several major nations engaged in protracted negotiations with the Ottoman Empire
(present-day Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey) in order to obtain concessions to explore for
oil in Mosul and in Kirkuk, two locations in what later was north-central Iraq. Although a
few concessions were granted prior to World War I (1914-1918), little surveying or
exploration was actually done. In 1912, several rival groups banded together to
establish the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), which would also seek a concession
to explore for Iraqi oil and would attempt to eliminate rivalry among the partners (Phyllis
and Moushabeck 49).
     Establishment of the TPC did not, however, eliminate the rivalry among the
shareholders representing various national interests, such as those of Great Britain.
After World War I, Iraq became a British mandate in 1920 yet that did not guarantee the
TPC an exclusive concession. After lengthy negotiations, a concession was finally
granted in 1925. In fact, numerous amounts of oil were discovered and because of the
continuous negotiations with the Iraqi government, the TPC was renamed the Iraqi
Petroleum Company (IPC) in 1929. This resulted in complete IPC control over the oil in
Iraq (Phyllis and Moushabeck 47-49).
     After the Iraqi revolution in 1958 and after the country was declared a Republic in
1961, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed in
response to a reduction in revenues due to a surplus amount of oil in Iraq. OPEC’s
main objective was to limit the impact of Iraq on IPC. In response, Iraq formed the
state-owned Iraq Nation Oil Company (INOC). Economically, Iraq remained stable with
oil booms throughout the 1960’s and 1970’s. However, there was a period of political
instability, with one military coup swiftly succeeding another. Leaders came and went
throughout the 1960’s and early 1970s (Phyllis and Moushabeck 55).
     Iraq's general policy during these years was one of hostility to the West and
friendship with the USSR. Iraq declared war on Israel during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war,
and in the 1973, gave material aid to Syria. Problems were also compounded by border
disputes with neighboring Iran when Iraq claimed parts of the country. In 1979, Saddam
Hussein was declared president of Iraq. “Hussein, whose first name means ‘fighter who
stands steadfast,’ has been likened to both Hitler and Stalin for his willingness to employ
violence, terror, secret police, and a personality cult to obtain, sustain, and expand
power “ (Schwartz 76). “Saddam...

Other Papers Like The Causes Of The Persian Gulf War

Causes of the Civil War Essay

840 words - 4 pages Causes of the civil war The civil war raged on for four years, but why was there even a civil war? The obvious reason is the differences over slavery between the north and the south. Another reason was the election of Abraham Lincoln, mainly because Southerners believed he was in favor of Northern interests. Yet another reason was the secession of South Carolina from the Union which directly angered the North and made other Southern states

Causes of the Revolutionary War Essay

1496 words - 6 pages Causes of the Revolutionary War The haphazard and disorganized British rule of the American colonies in the decade prior to the outbreak led to the Revolutionary War. The mismanagement of the colonies, the taxation policies that violated the colonist right's, the distractions of foreign wars and politics in England and mercantilist policies that benefited the English to a much greater degree then the colonists all show the British

Gulf War: Why Did The U.S. Intervene

3756 words - 16 pages authorizing the use of United States military forces, a de facto declaration of war. The vote passed by a 52 to 47 vote in the Senate and a 250 to 183 vote in the House of Representatives (Bin 36). The votes against the resolution were based on a desire to allow economic sanctions more time to punish Iraq, as opposed to using military force. This is the story of how the United States became militarily involved in the Persian Gulf Crisis. From this point

The Gulf War: A quick view into the causes and the effect on Iraq economically and politically during the Gulf War. A discussion about whether or not America was justified in attacking

583 words - 3 pages of the air war.(P)There were a number of reasons that caused the war in addition to the invasion of Kuwait by the Iraqi Military Forces; these reasons were: Iraq; publicly decrying the US naval presence in the Persian Gulf and making increasingly belligerent threats against Kuwait and The United Arab Emirates whom they accused of breaking agreements limiting oil production and thereby severely depressing world oil prices and costing Iraq billions

The Causes of the First World War

1228 words - 5 pages Introduction There are a lot of reasons for the outbreak of the First World War. In this project I will be explaining the causes of the first world with such topics in the Long term section such as Germany’s defeat of France in the Franco - Prussian war, the development of the alliance system, naval rivalry, colonial rivalry and the rivalry of Russia and Austria in the Balkans. Also I will be explaining the short term causes which are The

Causes of the American Civil War

1585 words - 7 pages Causes Of The American Civil War Four years of American bloodshed on American soil. Why? The reasons are varied. From the formation of America to 1860, the people in this country were divided. This division was a result of location and personal sentiments. Peace could not continue in a country filled with quarrels that affected the common American. There is a common misconception that the American Civil War was fought only over slavery

Main Causes of the Revolutionary War

524 words - 3 pages The revolutionary war had many causes and effects. Some notable cause are as follows: Also known as the Seven Years War, The French and Indian War was fought over conflicting territorial claims between the French and British in the Ohio River Valley. The British victory resulted in virtual expulsion of the French in North America, and the rationalization of taxing the Americans to recoup monetary losses. The 1765 Stamp Act required colonists

Causes of the Six Day War


Causes of the Spanish Civil War

1679 words - 7 pages Discuss why the Civil War broke out in Spain in 1936 The Spanish Civil War started following a failed military coup d'etat, which started on the 17th of July 1936, realised by the conservative elements within Spain, against the country's Republican government. The bloodthirsty three year civil war that followed transcended the Spanish frontiers in the fact that it is often considered as a microcosm for the international conflicts between

Pirates of the Gulf of Aden

2002 words - 9 pages most commonly-spewed recommendation from the Talking Heads of Sauron is to take this fight to the pirates, War on Terrorism-style. Drop the tag-and-release policy: open up on any pirate-laden vessel we come in contact with. Launch a few airstrikes on pirate safe havens on the Somalia coastline, and declare Mission Accomplished. Okay, that was unfair. What’s the rationale behind this strategy? If enough pirates die, those still living in

Discuss The Causes Of The English Civil War

1650 words - 7 pages chief minister, and most of all the poor kingship divided the realm and caused the civil war.FOOTNOTES1, Norah Carlin, 'The Causes of the English Civil War' (UK 1999) page 1332, Quote by John Morrill, found in 'History Today' magazine3, Quote by James I God and the King 1615, found in the 'Year 9, term one common test, 2003' page 44, Quote by James I, source booklet handed out in class 'the Civil war' page 15, 'History Today' magazine6, J

Related Essays

The Persian Gulf War Essay

895 words - 4 pages in the country and supported financially and militarily. In the 30th day in the desert, the operation also known as Operation Desert Storm; 13 Nations and United States starts to attack Iraq with ground force that U.S. and other nations had. The war was called in numerous different names because of historical, political, and journalistic views and other groups and regions. Such as, Gulf War, Persian Gulf War, War in the Gulf, 1990 Gulf War, Gulf

Persian Gulf War Essay

871 words - 4 pages Persian Gulf War The Persian Gulf War in 1991 had a variety of environmental consequences for the Middle East. The most devastating of these effects were from the oil spills and oil fires deliberately committed by the Iraqi army. There were extensive press coverage of these events at the time, and the United States accused the Iraqis of "environmental terrorism." These accusations were seen by some as propaganda effort, and there was almost

Was The Gulf War A 'just War'?

1529 words - 7 pages Aggression is the largest, if only, justification for war, according to the just-war theory outlined by Michael Walzer’s “Just and Unjust Wars”. In performing an act of aggression what Walzer describes as the ‘floodgates of war’ are opened. To enable us to label the Gulf War as ‘just,’ we must look at both the causes of war, and, once engaged, the conduct of the combatants involved. Although closely linked, these two categories must be treated

Causes Of The Great War Essay

752 words - 4 pages causes. The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, soon to be at the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist, while traveling through Sarajevo. The Archduke was chosen as a target because Serbians feared that after he was at the throne, he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the Austria-Hungary Empire. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, had to carry