I. Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. Self-efficacy 4
3. Academic studying 7
4. Applicability of self-efficacy on academic learning 9
5. Conclusion ...view middle of the document...
For a better understanding there will also be a distinction between self-efficacy and other related constructs.
2. The Facts and Features of Self-efficacy
The concept of self-efficacy was first introduced by Albert Bandura in 1977. In his books he defines self-efficacy as “a person’s belief in his capability to organize an execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” .
There are four major processes through which efficacy belief regulates human functioning .
The first ones are the cognitive processes. These processes regulate different aspects like goal setting and what kind of anticipatory scenarios people construct .
Efficacy beliefs are also an important factor regarding motivational processes .
Through selective processes they determine peoples coping abilities . Lastly there are also affective processes which determine how much stress and depressions persons recognize in taxing situations . These processes evolve into various aspects of human behavior.
They influence the course of action people choose and the amount of effort they put into achieving that certain course. Also they influence the time persons persevere in front of obstacles and their resilience to adversity. Another important factor is the nature of their though patterns, thus if they are self-hindering or self-aiding. Moreover these processes determine the level of stress people experience and the amount of accomplishment they realize . Normally these processes work together and not separate. In short, these processes generate beliefs that are determinants of how people feel, think and behave .
Knowing that it is possible to define the characteristics of efficacious people.
Efficacious people are fast to take advantage of opportunities and view challenging problems as tasks to be mastered. Moreover they develop a deeper interest for activities in which they participate and form a stronger from of commitment towards them.
Besides that they also recover quickly from disappointments .
To understand self-efficacy thoroughly it is important to know how it is generated.
In his book “Self-efficacy – the exercise of control” Bandura develops four mayor sources of self-efficacy, which differ in their importance .
Enactive mastery experience or past performance is seen as the most important source. If a person masters a difficult task successfully a strong and robust efficacy belief can be build. Since enactive mastery is a direct, or personal, experience it is considered to be the best way to gain self efficacy. To build a persistent sense of efficacy through this way there have to be obstacles to overcome, otherwise people would learn to expect only easy success and therefore will be discouraged by failure easily. However the other way around personal failure is also the easiest way to undermine self-efficacy beliefs .
Vicarious experience, also called social modeling, refers to the fact that watching others...