This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Testosterone Essay

2571 words - 11 pages

Nutrition for Performance
CRN: 6978
October 7, 2013
History & Uses
Scott Livingston

How did knowledge of testosterone come about? Well, in 1849 Arnold Berthold, a German scientist conducted the first formal experiment pertaining to hormones. He noticed that chickens that were castrated during development grew up to be passive (lacking fighting and mating behaviors) compared to normal roosters. Arnold Berthold decided to implant testes into the abdomens of castrated chickens. The chickens with implanted testes grew up to behave like normal roosters. Thus, Berthold ...view middle of the document...

Koch and his students noticed that the castrated subjects injected with the substance began to display signs of aggression and sexual behavior.
Thanks to the vision of Brown-Séquard and the aptitude of Koch, The Organon group was able to isolate, testosterone in May of 1935. It was named testosterone because: the stems of testicles and sterol, and the suffix ketone (David KG et al., 1935). In August of 1935, Butenandt and Hanisch chemically synthesized testosterone from a cholesterol base (Butenandt A, Hanisch G, 1935); one week after that, Leopold Ruzicka and A. Wettstein published their own synthesis of testosterone from a cholesterol base (Ruzicka L, Wettstein A, 1935). Although these great feats of discovery were completely independent of one another, Butenandt and Ruzicka shared the 1939 Nobel Peace Prize in Chemistry. Following this, Allan Kenyon’s group showed that testosterone raised nitrogen retention (important for anabolism); they also showed androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone propionate in men, boys, and women (Kenyon et al., 1940). This period from the 1930’s until the 1950’s is known as “ The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry” (Schwarz, 1999).
What is Testosterone? Testosterone’s IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists) name is: 17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl- 1,2,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17- dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one. Its CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) number is: 58-22-0. Its chemical formula is: C19H28O2  . Testosterone is steroid hormone from the androgen group. Androgen groups of steroid hormones are hormones that have masculinizing effects on individuals. Testosterone, derived from cholesterol, is produced in the testes in males and ovaries in females; some is also secreted in small amounts from the adrenal cortex. Like all hormones, testosterone, travels throughout the bloodstream and binds to tissues in order to influence physical and psychological activity.
Testosterone can benefit an individual physically in a wide range of ways. It plays a key role in fat distribution, muscle strength and mass, red blood cell production, sex drive, sperm production (males only), energy, etc. It also enlarges organs in males such as: heart, liver, lungs, etc. Testosterone can also effect an individual psychologically by affecting a persons: memory, attention, spatial ability, aggression, libido (sex drive), mood, etc (Moffat & Hampson, 1996).
Since males are the sex that testosterone affects the most, lets focus on them. “In males, about 44% is bound to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), 50% to albumin and 2-3% 'free’ ” (Manni et al., 1998). A male’s total testosterone range should be between 300 and 1,100 nanograms per deciliter, with the ideal number being around 450-600 nanograms per deciliter (Liu, 2005). According to a study in the Journal of Behavioral Medicine men that have higher-than-normal testosterone are rewarded with certain benefits, but also carry high risks. ...

Other Papers Like Testosterone

Winner Effect Essay

1515 words - 7 pages from it. Now a senior research fellow at the University of Cambridge, he is employing the tools of neuroscience to identify the biological basis of what John Maynard Keynes called the market’s “animal spirits.” In particular, Coates focuses on two hormones: testosterone, which increases our appetite for risk, and cortisol, which makes us shy away from it. Drawing on his Wall Street connections, he has been able to treat the trading floors of

Endocrine System Essay

989 words - 4 pages hyperthyroidism; it is often known as congenital hyperthyroidism. It is a condition that is not often noticed immediately at birth, it is normally noticed 6 months after the baby is born. There are two different types of cretinism: Myxedematous and Endemic. OVERUSE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS: Anabolic steroids are similar to the male hormone testosterone. They can be taken in pill form, shot into the muscle or rubbed onto the skin as a cream. Steroids make

Discuss the Role of Hormones and/or Genes in Gender Development

828 words - 4 pages (male hormones) such as testosterone stimulate the development of male sex organs. Genetic females who are exposed prenatally to high levels of androgens may therefore develop ambiguous genitalia and the baby may appear externally to be male. Similarly, genetic males with too little androgens may appear externally to be female - this condition is known as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Hormones also have a powerful affect on the

Male Birthpill

644 words - 3 pages -inhibiting molecule, they begin producing fewer sperm and those sperm they do produce don't swim as well."This is a good reason to get excited about low sperm counts," said Martin Matzuk of Baylor College of Medicine, another author of the report.Mating studies confirm that JQ1 indeed works as an effective contraception. Even better, those effects are completely reversible and without adverse consequences for the animals' testosterone levels or

Outline And Evaluate The Role Of Genes And Hormones In Gender Development (24 Marks)

540 words - 3 pages . At about 6 weeks, the Y chromosome develops the gonads (sex organs) of the embryo into testes when testosterone is secreted. If testosterone is not secreted, the gonads will develop as ovaries. As they develop, the sex specific hormones oestrogen and testosterone will masculinise or feminise the foetus. The biological approach is reductionist in explaining gender development because it only explains it in terms of genes and hormones. Reiner

Case Studies

600 words - 3 pages February 28, 2014 Case Study: Chemical Eric: Dealing With the Disintegration of Central Control February 28, 2014 Part 1 Questions: 1. What hormonal problem could be causing these symptoms? 2. Why would joint damage be associated with rapid growth and low testosterone levels? *Answer these with your partner. February 28, 2014 What Do We Think? (#1) February 28, 2014 The Pituitary • Most tumors occur as a result of a mutation in a

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

643 words - 3 pages the bladder is full. The patient may also experience difficulties in starting urinating and once it started, it is difficult to stop. Other symptoms of BPH is epididymitis and asymptomatic. The Causes of BPH BPH mostly happen due to hormonal imbalance. Besides the body changes in men that cause hormonal imbalance, the declination of testosterone levels as well as the increase of hormone estrogens also contribute to the enlarging of prostate

Reproductive System

1148 words - 5 pages millions of sperm cells. The testicles are oval shaped and about two inches long and one inch in diameter. The testes are not only part of the reproduction system but also the endocrine system because they produce a hormone called testosterone. Testosterone is a very important part of the male body during puberty. It is the reason they grow bigger and stronger. Testosterone is the reason they grow facial hair, body hair, get deeper voices, and

Endocrine Glands

790 words - 4 pages testosterone in males after the start of puberty. Testosterone has effects on many parts of the body, including the muscles, bones, sex organs, and hair follicles. This hormone causes growth and increases in strength of the bones and muscles, including the accelerated growth of long bones during adolescence. During puberty, testosterone controls the growth and development of the sex organs and body hair of males, including pubic, chest, and facial

Cr Js 105 Unit 2

1662 words - 7 pages Unit 2, Ind. Project , American Intercontinental University Theories of Crime causation Criminal justice 105 Abstract This paper discusses the merits of the idea that genetics are a source for criminal behavior.  The author of this paper includes examples that she found through research studies. The author also includes the results and findings for twin, adoption and testosterone studies that were conducted by top

Anabolic Steroids Use by Athletes

2535 words - 11 pages -1900's with >a common testosterone from the vet store. Most of the steroids that are >being used to this day are from Vet stores that are used in animal medicine. > > When one person started taking it and others started seeing >results in strength, then it started a chain reaction in the youth >community. The first known use of steroids was in the Olympics where they >tested users in the running and jumping fields The

Related Essays

Testosterone In Rodents Essay

2876 words - 12 pages Introduction It has long been known that hormones in the body can have biological as well as behavioral effects on animals. Hormones can stimulate animals to grow, regulate, and differentiate as well as press them to exhibit a wide variety of behaviors for an even broader scope of reasons. Perhaps no other hormone has gained the public notoriety of testosterone. Long considered a masculine hormone, testosterone is inextricably coupled in the

Brave Men: Testosterone Reduces Fear Essay

1469 words - 6 pages Brave men: Testosterone reduces fear Men are mostly associated with power, dominance and courage in opposition to women’s warm, caring and less aggressive nature. Studies verify, that the hormone testosterone, which is thought to be partly responsible for males behaviour in many animals and humans, has fear-reducing effects. A study from 2005 dealing with unconscious fear and another from 2006 examining the effects of the hormone on fear

Discuss Neural And Hormonal Mechanisms In Human Aggression. (8 Marks + 16 Marks

966 words - 4 pages is involved as a positive reinforcer in this pathway. This suggests that individuals will intentionally seek out an aggressive encounter solely because they experience a rewarding sensation from it. The male sex hormone testosterone is thought to influence aggression from young adulthood onwards due to its action on brain areas involved in controlling aggression. This association comes from a number of sources such as a meta-analysis carried

Nature Vs Nurture Essay

559 words - 3 pages in testosterone could in part be responsible for aggressive or criminal behavior. Olweus and his colleagues (1980) conducted a study of 58 16-year-old boys by testing various responses to physical and verbal aggression, frustration tolerance, self-confidence, and anxiety, and also obtaining blood samples, testing for testosterone levels. The study revealed that while personality measures had no significant relationship to testosterone, there were