Nutrition for Performance
October 7, 2013
History & Uses
How did knowledge of testosterone come about? Well, in 1849 Arnold Berthold, a German scientist conducted the first formal experiment pertaining to hormones. He noticed that chickens that were castrated during development grew up to be passive (lacking fighting and mating behaviors) compared to normal roosters. Arnold Berthold decided to implant testes into the abdomens of castrated chickens. The chickens with implanted testes grew up to behave like normal roosters. Thus, Berthold ...view middle of the document...
Koch and his students noticed that the castrated subjects injected with the substance began to display signs of aggression and sexual behavior.
Thanks to the vision of Brown-Séquard and the aptitude of Koch, The Organon group was able to isolate, testosterone in May of 1935. It was named testosterone because: the stems of testicles and sterol, and the suffix ketone (David KG et al., 1935). In August of 1935, Butenandt and Hanisch chemically synthesized testosterone from a cholesterol base (Butenandt A, Hanisch G, 1935); one week after that, Leopold Ruzicka and A. Wettstein published their own synthesis of testosterone from a cholesterol base (Ruzicka L, Wettstein A, 1935). Although these great feats of discovery were completely independent of one another, Butenandt and Ruzicka shared the 1939 Nobel Peace Prize in Chemistry. Following this, Allan Kenyon’s group showed that testosterone raised nitrogen retention (important for anabolism); they also showed androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone propionate in men, boys, and women (Kenyon et al., 1940). This period from the 1930’s until the 1950’s is known as “ The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry” (Schwarz, 1999).
What is Testosterone? Testosterone’s IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists) name is: 17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl- 1,2,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17- dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one. Its CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) number is: 58-22-0. Its chemical formula is: C19H28O2 . Testosterone is steroid hormone from the androgen group. Androgen groups of steroid hormones are hormones that have masculinizing effects on individuals. Testosterone, derived from cholesterol, is produced in the testes in males and ovaries in females; some is also secreted in small amounts from the adrenal cortex. Like all hormones, testosterone, travels throughout the bloodstream and binds to tissues in order to influence physical and psychological activity.
Testosterone can benefit an individual physically in a wide range of ways. It plays a key role in fat distribution, muscle strength and mass, red blood cell production, sex drive, sperm production (males only), energy, etc. It also enlarges organs in males such as: heart, liver, lungs, etc. Testosterone can also effect an individual psychologically by affecting a persons: memory, attention, spatial ability, aggression, libido (sex drive), mood, etc (Moffat & Hampson, 1996).
Since males are the sex that testosterone affects the most, lets focus on them. “In males, about 44% is bound to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), 50% to albumin and 2-3% 'free’ ” (Manni et al., 1998). A male’s total testosterone range should be between 300 and 1,100 nanograms per deciliter, with the ideal number being around 450-600 nanograms per deciliter (Liu, 2005). According to a study in the Journal of Behavioral Medicine men that have higher-than-normal testosterone are rewarded with certain benefits, but also carry high risks. ...