1. How can science help to overcome the weaknesses and errors of human reasoning and provide a better way of knowing and understanding the world around us?
According to Krathwohl (1985), science is closely associated with discovering the truth in modern life. Science has helped us figure out about the world. We depend on science for unbiased information to make decisions because man is not a machine. Humans have different emotions and opinions that can influence his or her reasoning. Science is simply a way of knowing the truth through experimentations and observations without being prejudice. It sets standards on human reasoning on how to know and understand the world.
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Science is characterized by objectivity, accuracy and precision. Science has shaped the way of knowing by producing accurate data for humans. Moreover, it is governed by several theories and laws that will give fewer variations in the data. Observations will be taken primarily for the purpose of the study and that the study is of importance. This will give a relevant and accurate way of gathering and analyzing data. Only the data of significance shall be gathered. Also, the theories used in analyzing the data are universal and tested. Hence, it will lead to the truth that is not combined with opinions and biases. Science has provided a better way of knowing and understanding the world around us.
2. Is Management a science?
Science is a systematic way of thinking that provides a better understanding about the world. It is a body of knowledge that is universally accepted. Babbie (1986) mentions science as a method of inquiry – a way of learning and knowing things about the world around us. It is governed by several theories and laws that allow humans to see the bigger picture. It establishes cause and effect between variables and emphasizes the principles governing the relationship.
Management is a way how managers plan, organize, control, and coordinate with internal factors as well as external factors. Fayol stated fourteen principles of administration that blended technological and structural with behavioural and motivational concerns. These terms and principles were intended to be a comprehensive theory combining both description of the current practice and guidelines for managerial effectiveness (Brandenburg, 1974). Management is based on conceptual theories but has different results depending on the factors that influence the subject.
Management of thought introduced ideas relevant to the foundation of an applied science of management. According to Frederick Taylor, management problems can be subjected to systematic data gathering, experimentation, and analysis to understand what mechanisms are at work and thereby to obtain a basis for designing improvements in management processes. With this managers can avoid repeating past mistakes.