The plant body consists of two basic parts: the shoot system and the root system.
The Root System
* Underground (usually)
* Anchor the plant in the soil
* Absorb water and nutrients
* Conduct water and nutrients
* Food Storage
The Shoot System
* Above ground (usually)
* Elevates the plant above the soil
* Many functions including:
* reproduction & dispersal
* food and water conduction
* Note: the shoot system includes the leaves and the reproductive organs, although these will be covered in more detail separately
The shoot system includes organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers, and fruits and ...view middle of the document...
Asexual (or vegetative) reproduction is the biological process by which an organism creates a genetically similar copy of itself without the combination of genetic material with another individual. Most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction
Here the food is stored for the plants to feed from
Takes water from the root to the leaves
Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and, when moved to other locations, in other locations of the plant. Hormones also determine the formation of flowers, stems, leaves, the shedding of leaves, and the development and ripening of fruit. Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. Instead, each cell is capable of producing hormones. Plant hormones shape the plant, affecting seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves, and fruits. They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. So they are also known as growth factors or growth hormones.
The root system includes roots as well as modified stem structures such as tubers and rhizomes and usually it develops underground.
The functions of the plant root system include:
1. Anchorage and support. The plant root system anchors the plant in the soil and provides physical support. Redwood trees (a gymnosperm) about 100 meters tall have stood erect for thousand years only because millions of individual fibrous roots dig into the ground, even though the depth of penetration is only up to about 5 meters. In general, however, taproot system provides more effective anchorage such that they are more resistant to toppling during storms....