Innovative ideas into products
1-The first stage in the innovation process is to find the “new” ideas and insights to commercialize. The first stage in the innovation process is to find the “new” ideas and insights to commercialize.
2-To enable successful innovation, CEOs need to create both an innovation agenda and a culture tolerant of risk.This includes setting expectations for innovation, and developing methods to measure the success of innovation activities.
3- Transforming ideas to novel products, processes and services Effectively transforming ideas to
commercially useful applications is not easy, and many innovations fail in this stage of the process.
4- Scaling value creation ...view middle of the document...
Introducing new products helps firms protect their margins, while investing in process innovation helps firms lower their costs. Advances in information technology also have played a role in speeding the pace of innovation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing have made it easier and faster for firms to design and produce new products, while flexible manufacturing technologies have made shorter production runs economical and have reduced the importance of production economies of scale.2 These technologies help firms develop and produce more product variants that closely meet the needs of narrowly defined customer groups, thus achieving differentiation from competitors. For example, in 2009 Toyota offered 17 different passenger vehicle lines to the U.S. market under the Toyota brand (e.g., Camry, Prius, Highlander, and Tundra). Within each of the vehicle lines, Toyota also offered several different models (e.g., Camry, Camry LE, Camry SE, Camry XLE, Camry Hybrid) with different features and at different price points.
Research and Development
Research can refer to both basic research and applied research. Basic research is effort directed at increasing understanding of a topic or field without a specific immediate commercial application in mind. This research advances scientific knowledge, which may (or may not) turn out to have long-run commercial implications. Applied research is directed at increasing understanding of a topic to meet a specific need. In industry, this research typically has specific commercial objectives. Development refers to activities that apply knowledge to produce useful devices, materials, or processes. Thus, the term research and development refers to a range of activities that extend from early exploration of a domain to specific commercial implementations.
Firms' research and development is considered a primary driver of innovation. In the United States, firms spend significantly more on R & D than government institutions spend on R & D, and firms consider their in-house R & D their most important source of innovation.
Firms often collaborate with a number of external organizations (or individuals) in their innovation activities. Firms are most likely to collaborate with customers, suppliers, and universities, though they also may collaborate with competitors, producers of complements, government laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and other research institutions.
Many universities have a research mission, and in recent years universities have become more active in setting up technology transfer activities to directly commercialize the inventions of faculty. Universities also contribute to innovation through the publication of research findings.
Government also plays an active role in conducting research and development (in its own laboratories), funding the R & D of other organizations, and creating institutions to foster collaboration networks and to nurture...