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Study Guide Essay

915 words - 4 pages

Introduction
* What is the definition of Earth Science? All sciences that seek to understand Earth and it’s surrounding space.

* What are the sub-disciplines of earth science (geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy)? Know the definition of each of these. Geology is the study of Earth divided into two broad areas –Physical and historical. Physical Geology examines the materials comprising earth, Historical Geology is to understand the origin of earth. Meteorolgy is the study of the Atomosphere and the processes that produce weather and climates. Oceanography integrates chemistry, physics, geology, and biology. It includes the study of composition and movements of ...view middle of the document...

The System is a group of interacting, or independent, parts that form a complex whole. The hypothesis is a tentative or untested explanation. A Theory is a Hypothesis that has survived extensive scrutiny. A scientific law is a basic principle that describes a particular behavior of nature that is generally narrow in scope and can be stated briefly.
* What are the two broad types into which resources in the earth are typically divided (renewable and non-renewable)? Be able to define each. Renewable means that they can be replenished over relatively short time spans (plants & animals for food). Non-renewable are basic resources as metals such as iron, aluminum, and copper. Fuels and oils.

* Define the scientific method. A process in which researchers gather facts through observations and formulate scientific hypothesis and theories.

* What are the two sources of energy that power the earth system? The Sun and Heat from the Earth’s interior.
Minerals (Chapter 1)
* Know the definition of a mineral.
* Know the basic definition of a rock.
* Know how atoms of the same element are related. What do they have in common?
* Know definitions for the following terms: valence electrons, nucleus, atom, element, ion, and chemical bond.
* What are the basic subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)? Which of these are found in the nucleus? Which is found outside of the nucleus?
* Know the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Which is typically stronger?
* Know the components and structure of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron that makes up silicate minerals. Which mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen?
* Know and understand the following physical properties of minerals: luster, color, streak, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and specific gravity. Be able to use Figure 1.23 to help identify minerals and their associated...

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