1. Gravida-any pregnancy, regardless of duration, including present pregnancy. Para-birth after 20 weeks gestation regardless of whether the infant is born alive or dead. Gravida and Para-used in relationto pregnancies, not number of fetus. Nulligravida-a woman who has never been pregnant. Primigravda-a woman who is pregnant for the first time. Multigravida-a woman who is in her second or any subsequent pregnancy. Nullipara-a woman who has had no births at more than 20 weeks gestation. Primipara-a woman who has had one birth at more than 20 weeks gestation, regardless of whether the infant was born alive or dead. Multipara-a woman who has had 2 or more births at more than 20 weeks gestation.
1b. How are multiples accounted for? TWINS=1PREGNANCY 1 BIRTH
2. What is the GTPAL system? Gravida=number of pregnancy, Term=Infants born 37-42 weeks’ gestation, Preterm=Infants born 20-36 weeks’ gestation, ...view middle of the document...
Fetal Heartbeat-Doppler at about 10 weeks. Ultrasound-Transvaginal and Abdominal
6. What are some contributing factors to a high-risk pregnancy? Maternal age <16 or >35yrs, Maternal medical problems chronic HTN, preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus or heart disease, Rh incompatibility Rh – mother Rh + fetus, Unexplained stillbirth, Suspected SGA (small for gestation age)/IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction), Post-term pregnancy > 42 weeks gestation, Multiple gestation (twins, triplets), PTL (Preterm Labor), Previous cervical incompetence.
7. Describe fetal movement/kick counts. The mother is instructed to count the fetal movements at the same time each day. If the movement is less than 10 movements in a 3 hour period or if the amount of movement is significantly less than normal the women should contact the doctor immediately.
8. What is an obstetrical ultrasound used for? Use to produce pictures of a baby (embryo or fetus) within a pregnant woman as well as the mother’s uterus and ovaries. What are the pros/cons of its use? Pros-Painless, Non-Invasive (transabdominal), Cons-Not 100% accurate, Accuracy is limited by maternal obesity, Sonographer skill, & fetal positioning.
9. Summarize the screening tests: Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein- May be collect as a part of Quadruple Screen, Screening tool, not definitive (amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling), Measures specific hormones & proteins in the maternal serum to help detect NTD (spina bifida) or chromosomal abnormalities (Trisomy 18/21) AFP produced by the fetal liver, most accurate if performed b/t 15-20 weeks gestation, Important to know accurate dates, Obtain hCG level, High level of AFP may suggest, NTD (spina bifida or anacephaly), Low levels of AFP may suggest Trisomy 18, Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) Nuchal Translucency Testing-Also referred to as the Nuchal Test or Nuchal Fold Test NFT, Performed between 11-13 6/7, Used to screen for chromosomal abnormalities, Ultrasound scanning used to observe the back of the fetal neck, Fetuses with certain genetic disorders will have an accumulation of fluid on the back of the neck, 3mm or greater at risk for trisomy disorder.,