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# Study Essay

277 words - 2 pages

Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
A Population(全体) is the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are interest.
A sample is a subset(子集) of a population
A parameter(总体参数) is a numerical description of a population characteristic.
A statistic(样本统计量) is a numerical description of a sample characteristic
...view middle of the document...

（Tel. name ID card numbers）
Quantitative data (定量数据)consist of numerical measurement or counts.（全部由数字组成，年份，时间，价格等

| | |
| 注释 | 例子 |
Nominal level定类计量法（Qualitative data ） | 无顺序 | 名字，一切带有标签性质的东西 |
Ordinary level定序计量法(qualitative or quantitative data ） | 有顺序，但是顺序无意义 | 艺术比赛的排名，带有主观性质的排名 |
Interval Level定距计量法(quantitative data) | “0”表示位置不能用倍数形式表示 | 一个XXXX年出生的人，就是以定距计量法 |
Ratio level定比计量法(quantitative data) | “0”表示没有，是有意义的可以用倍数表示 | 身高，体重，年龄一个人XX岁， |

Data collection
* Observational study(观察法)
* Perform an experiment（无前例的，比如医药实验）
* Use a simulation
* Use a survey(by interview, e-mail or telephone )
* Sampling

Experimental Design
A confounding variable occurs when an experimenter cannot tell the difference between the effects of different factors on a variable.
Placebo (安慰剂)
Blinding(盲实验：一个人不知道) is a technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo.
Double-blind experiment (双盲实验：两个人不知道)
Randomization(随机试验) is a process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment.
Block design(控制区域)

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