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Student Essay

2116 words - 9 pages

Etnografi Amungme
Suku Amungme tinggal di dataran rendah di sekitar kota Timika, Distrik Agimuga dan pegunungan disekitar Distrik Tembagapura. Permukiman suku Amungme berada di daerah yang dianggap aman dan tidak berpindah-pindah secara turun-temurun.
Menurut tutur leluhur, orang Amungme berasal dari daerah Pangema (Lembah Baliem), Wamena. Hal ini dapat ditelusuri dari kata Kurima, yang artinya “tempat berkumpul” dan Hitigama yang maknanya sebagai tempat pertama kali nenek moyang suku Amungme  dan lima suku lainnya, “Suku Dani, Damal, Nduga, Moni, Mee” mendirikan Honai (rumah tinggal) dari alang-alang
Mitologi Riwayat  Amungme
Kata Amungme berasal dari: Amung yang ...view middle of the document...

Kemudian, mereka mengutus seekor burung murai. Saat burung itu kembali, di dalam paruhnya terbawa lumut dari air yang mulai mengering. Hal itu menandakan bumi telah cukup kering. Keesokan harinya orang-orang mulai keluar dari gua dan mulai berjalan searah matahari, arah ke barat.
Selama perjalanan, orang-orang mulai menebarkan bibit-bibit tanaman serta melepaskan binatang-binatang. Lalu, sampailah mereka di gunung Me-arrangguma-bugin, yang artinya gunung kebahagiaan dan perpisahan. Rombongan pertama yang keluar dari gua adalah orang Amungme.
Setelah itu, tiba rombongan berikutnya, tetapi karena tempatnya tidak mencukupi, rombongan itu melanjutkan perjalanan. Rombongan inilah yang menjadi moyang dari suku-suku Ekagi, Moni, dan Wolani, serta suku-suku kecil lain yang berada di sebelah barat dari wilayah kesatuan hidup suku Amungme. Rombongan pertama lalu melanjutkan perjalanan ke arah selatan dari Gunung Perangama-Bugin.
Hakekat Alam dan Perkampungan
Orang Amungme adalah intisari dari alam sekitarnya. Alam memberikan manfaat besar bagi kehidupan sehingga mereka menghargai dan menjaga harmoni alam dengan tidak merusak kesemstaan alam. Jika terjadi perusakan, diniscayai sama dengan merusak diri sendiri.
Makna penghargaan terhadap alam diungkapkan dalam upacara syukur atas berkah yang didapat dari alam dan jika ada ada yang merusak alam terungkap dalam perkataan bijak yang berbunyi:“Enane taram agan iwiatongengee, Em arap nap atendak, mesin arop nap atendak, oleh arop nap atendak, ib arop nan atendak. Kela arop nap atendak iatong heno! Inak juo onen diamo!”
Artinya: “Anak-anak, mengapa berbuat demikian, padahal kamu tahu bahwa pohon itu adalah diriku, anjing itu adalah aku, air itu juga diriku, tanah pun aku, dan batu itu pun diriku. Berbuatlah semaumu, aku akan mengawasimu!”(Beanal, 1997: 9)
Suku Amungme mendiami wilayah hampir sepanjang Pegunungan Jayawijaya dan terbagi dalam 66 klan. Klan-klan itu terdiri dari Mom dan Magai. Perkawinan di antara mereka hanya bisa terlaksana jika kedua pasangan berasal dari dua klan yang berbeda. Jika pasangan berasal dari klan yang sama, perkawinan tidak bisa terlaksana. Jika terjadi pelanggaran, perkawinan itu akan dikutuk dan akan mendapat sanksi adat berupa hukuman mati yang disebut hanom.
Suku Amungme mendiami lembah-lembah di bagian selatan dan sedikit ke bagian utara Pegunungan Tengah Puncak Jaya. Seluruh lembah itu masuk ke dalam wilayah adat Amungme, yang disebut Amungsa. Di lembah-lembah itulah, anak-anak suku Amungme membangun kehidupan mereka sejak beratus-ratus tahun lalu. Sejatinya, pemukiman suku Amungme dibagi menjadi tiga bagian:
* Ninusa. Daerah permukiman yang terletak di kawasan hulu, berada di ketinggian sekitar 3000–3500 m. Daerah itu ditutupi hutan, dan penduduk yang mendiaminya berjumlah sekitar 20 klan yang disebut ninume.
* Utunsa. Daerah permukiman yang terletak di kawasan tengah, berada sekitar 1000–3000 m dpl. Daerah itu bertebing terjal dan berhutan lebat, dihuni oleh...

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