“At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.
A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new,
when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance…”1
When the First Prime Minister of India, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, gave his speech, he must have
been prepared with the various post-independence hurdles, the infant democracy would have
to undergo. Certainly, India, exemplifies the phrase, ‘Unity in Diversity.’ It is thus, astonishing
to see a country with innumerable divisions and differences, managed to stay united for the 65
years of ...view middle of the document...
Amended part 8.
Amended schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7. Also changed the composition of council of states thereby changing the
representation of the different states in Lok Sabha also.
August 1947, New Delhi, India.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES AND LEGAL EVOLUTION OF THE
Typically, the term ‘State Reorganization’, relates to the alteration of the state boundaries
and creation of new states, both being by sanction of the Union Government. The state
reorganization movement has been one of the movements which has deep penetrated roots
since the pre-independence time. The first committee formed in this regard was in the pre
independence time, comprising Motilal Nehru and Jawaharlal Nehru. The Committee submitted
its Report in 1928. The Report clearly laid down that after independence, the Country could
be reorganized on the basis of languages. However with independence as the frontline agenda,
this recommendation took a back seat, but evidently did not disappear from the mainstream.
Post independence, the First Committee formed in this regard was the Dar Commission headed
by S.K.Dar. This committee did not recommend division of states on linguistic basis. In the
year, 1948, an unofficial committee was first formed in this regard, called the J.V.P Committee,
named after its members, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Pattabhi Sitaramayya,
which did acknowledge the possible division on the basis of language, yet suggested that it
could be postponed. However, it suggested that Andhra Province could be formed provided
the Andhraites gave up their claim to the city of Madras (now Chennai). Post independence,
Government’s sole motive was administrative pragmatism and maintaining unity. Thus it could
not accept the domination of a region by giving it the status of a state.
The then Prime Minister, J.L Nehru, and his colleagues aimed at the creation of large,
heterogeneous states because such composite states could discourage prejudiced identities.
However, this was just a mere, wishful thinking. The states were discontented, dissatisfied,
fuming, for even a democracy was not able to give what they really wanted. It was the death of
the iconic leader, Sriramulu Potti of Andhra Pradesh, which set the ball rolling for the movement
to begin. The Andhra leader whose ‘fast unto death’4
of people was the trigger event behind the never ending protests, starting from protests in Andhra
i.e. ‘Madras Manade Movement’ which gave birth to many other, similar movements, Samyukta
, left a really strong impression in the minds
Sriramulu fasted for 59 days, and on the midnight of 15th
population and huge protests ultimately led to the ‘Madras Manade’ movement, meaning, “Madras is ours”
December 1952, passed away. This agitated the telugu
Maharashtra, Mahagujarat Andolan, Punjabi Suba5
various Indian states. The...