Chapter 12-18 Study Guide
Chapter 12- Reconstruction
1. Key Terms
1. Reconstruction- the reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate states after the Civil War.
2. Amnesty- the act of granting a pardon to a large group of people.
3. Pocket veto- indirectly vetoing a bill by letting a session of Congress expire without signing the bill.
4. Freedmen’s Bureau- bureau established by congress as a solution to the refugee crisis.
5. Black codes- laws passed in the South just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers.
6. Carpetbagger- name given to many ...view middle of the document...
19. They sought education, and they became involved in the government.
21. They believed that all men should have equal rights.
23. The KKK’s goal was to push union troops and carpetbaggers out of the South.
Chapter 13- Settling West
1. Key Terms
1. Open Range- vast areas of grasslands owned by the federal government.
2. Chisholm trail- major route north to Abilene.
3. Barbed wire- cheap fencing that easily covered the lands.
4. Great Plains- region extending westward to the Rockies from around the 100th meridian.
5. Homestead act- government support for settlement in the Great Plains.
6. Assimilate- to absorb a group into the culture of a larger population.
1. The Big Strike in Nevada- Towns in Nevada discovered riches like silver and almost overnight trade centers turned into large cities.
2. Ranching and Cattle Drives- During this time is whenever people started to raise livestock as a business.
3. Culture of the Plains Indians- They were nomads that mainly hunted buffalo and followed them across the lands.
6 and 7. Fetterman’s and Sand Creek Massacres- Both massacres are examples of tension between the Americans and Native Americans.
8. Battle of Little Big Horn-
1. In south Dakota
2. The Lakota Sioux Indians felt no need to follow American laws so they did not immigrate
3. The government sent military troops to persuade them otherwise, but Lt. George Custer took it upon himself to attack the Native Americans.
4. This happened in the Big Horn Mountains near Little Big Horn River.
5. It was a slaughter of the troops.
9. pg 432 #s 15-19
15. People started finding gold and silver in the west and many people flocked to the region.
16. Barbed wire
17. Land was sold along the railroads for a low price.
18. The climate was perfect for growing wheat.
19. White settlers moved west, they took the land, and killed the buffalo.
Chapter 14- Industrialization
1. Key Terms
1. Entrepreneur- one who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise.
2. Vertical Integration- the combining of companies that supply equipment and services needed for a particular industry.
3. Horizontal integration- the combining of competing firms into one corporation.
4. Monopoly- total control of a type of industry by one person or one company.
5. Trust- a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition.
6. Integration- the bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association , as in society or an organization; desegregation.
7. Deflation- a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and, therefore, increases the buying power of money.
2. New Inventions:
a. Bell and the telephone- in 1874 Alexander...