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# Solutions Essay

2995 words - 12 pages

Question 1

a)
The consultants proposed scheme indeed produces a viable link between the two locations. The explanation is given below.
The distance between the locations are 40 meters.
The transmission power is Pt = 80mW
The sensitivity of the receiver is Pr = -80dBm If we convert dBm into mW we have:
Pr = -80dBm = 10^(-80/10) = 10^-8 mW
The operating frequency of IEEE 802.11g protocol is 2.4 GHz and in Hz is 2.4*10^9. So frequency
f = 2.4*10^9 Hz
The transmission range of a wireless node with the about characteristics is in a free space model without any obstacles in the line of sight is:
The transmission range d is given from the following formula d = (Pt/Pr)*c2 4πf
c is the ...view middle of the document...

000 / 54 = 2963 seconds ≅ 49 minutes.
After the BER applies to the transmission the new transmission time t will equal to:
t = 160.000 Mbits / 53,946 Mbits/sec = 2966 seconds. The difference is minimal because the BER is small.
c)
The capacity of the new scheme could further be improved if we used directional antennas instead the non-directional antennas since there are no object between the two transmitters. Directional antennas have the ability create beams of strengthened signals and direct them to other receivers providing improved performance and also reducing the received interference. Also if we invested on some better quality receivers then the BER could be decreased and provide a more reliable link.
d)
Other networking technologies that could be deployed and increase the capacity of the original design are:
Optical wireless use laser lights to transmit digital signals between two transceivers. They provide a high capacity link of about 1Gb/sec full duplex as long as there are no obstacles between the transceivers (clear line of sight). They are industry standards and they don't require any expensive equipment in order to be deployed.
Other technology that could be deployed is the IEEE 802.11n standard. This protocol is a standard provides multiple streams over a channel and has an advertised throughput of 600 Mb/s compared to the IEEE 802.11g and 802.11a protocols. Apart from that the protocol includes error correction mechanisms that enable it to provide a reliable and high-throughput links.
e)
Two reasons that the real throughput is lower than nominal capacity of the link are:
In case of errors due to interference or other sources of noise, depending on the protocol and networking technology used, there will be retransmissions taking place and these reduce the available for data transfer bandwidth. Especially wireless transmissions are prone to errors and should be carefully designed and implemented.
Another reason is the protocol overhead. Any packet sent over a link includes the useful user data of a file and extra information that are used to maintain a reliable link, route the data and perform other controls during a transmission. In case of wireless networks channel coordination used up some of the available bandwidth.
Question 2

a)
Fragmentation and reassembly processes ensure interconnection of networks with different maximum transmission links. Fragmentation of an Internet datagram is required when a large amount of data needs to be transmitted from a network that can fit it to its MTU (Maximum transmission unit) to a network with a smaller MTU.
When a datagram needs to be fragmented, the receiving device must be provided with the appropriate information so that it will be able to identify the fragments and reassemble them into the original datagram. This information lies within the IP datagram header and is created by the device that carries out the fragmentation.
Some of the most important parts of the...

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