Cost Reduction Opportunities for the PV Industry by Operational Excellence
(in the march towards grid parity)
Global Development Director, BP Solar
Álvaro Granada, CSU Mgr, BP Oil España Ramón Antelo, CEO, Galgano España
Block 03: Natural Gas & Renewables
Forum 14: State of the Art on Renewables (Wind and Solar) Sources of Energy
Grid Parity: The Gap and the Business as Usual Levers
• R&D driven levers: • Efficiency improvement
• Silicon refining optimization
Some 45%-ish gap to be closed
• Thickness reduction and next generation automation
•Capital investment driven levers: •Fabs size •Vertical integration
EPIA: “Solar Generation IV- 2007. Solar ...view middle of the document...
1 Application of Lean Manufacturing Techniques catalyzed by “unconventional” partnerships
(…such as someone that needed to drive OEE up as a matter of make it or break it… )
OEE Improvement Example
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OEE improvement achieved by an Ink manufacturer in Turkey with the help of Galgano consulting in 27 weeks by: •Buffer protection •Change over time reduction •Increase of milling speed
Process Control Improvement
The process control opportunity relates to the application of SPC (Static Process Control) techniques to minimize the “out of spec” results
Industry standard is 0,5% defects (or 3 sigma level) , while world class is 1,3 ppms (or 6 sigma level).
Typical tails of PV cell efficiency production are in the order of 16% of sub-spec product, which while still sellable in today's market conditions, are not desirable
Reduction of that 16% to 0,5% will yield roughly a 0,4% absolute points of efficiency gain, or an equivalent of 3% points of module cost reduction.
Likewise 3% points of manufacturing yield in wafering, 2% points in cells and 1% point in module would come out of reaching a 3-sigma spread in today's mechanical and aesthetical yields. That means and additional reduction in 5% from today's module cost.
How to do it:
– First, by identifying which parameters matters – Then by putting those parameters under disciplined SPC
Paradigm Shift No. 2 Scientific approach to SPC supported by top class MES (Manufacturing Execution Systems)
Process Control Driven Improvement Example
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Right First Time percent improvement achieved by the same ink manufacturer in Turkey with the help of Galgano consulting in 22 weeks by:
•A quality Blitz Kaizen during weeks 7 and 12 to reduce causes of variation and identify those parameters that matter using statistical techniques •Application of SPC in the daily management of the line to those parameters
Factory Planning, Building Block and Footprint Optimization Potential
Factory Planning Opportunities arise fundamentally from three different angles :
– Build-in manufacturing tool building block optimization by:
Use of Monte Carlo simulation techniques to minimize dynamic loss factors (i.e., minimize the effect of real life variability on the line throughput) • Use VSM (Value Stream Map) Lean techniques to reduce movement waste and enhance value added per square meter
– Water recycling and net energy management optimization techniques:
• Reduced tool water consumption 3% conversion cost potential in a cell fab (Ref 5 by MW Zander) • Energy savings and...