Software Piracy Essay

1275 words - 6 pages

Copyright and Book Piracy in Pakistan

Khalid Mahmood

Department of Library & Information Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore

Muhammad Ilyas

Department of Library & Information Science, University of Balochistan, Quetta

Copyright Defined

Copyright is a legal term describing rights given to creators for their literary and artistic works.

Kinds of works covered by copyright include: literary works such as novels, poems, plays, reference works, newspapers and computer programs; databases; films, musical compositions, and choreography; artistic works such as paintings, drawings, photographs and sculpture; architecture; and advertisements, maps and technical drawings.

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100,000 which are doubled for second or subsequent offenses

Civil ex parte search orders (without notice to the defendant)

Registrar’s authority to prohibit (seize, detain, etc.) the export and import of infringing copies

A new right in “typographical arrangement” of a published edition of a work

Literature Review

Non-cooperative attitude of the government and foreign publishers (Mirza, 1983)

High cost of book causes piracy; 80% piracy in textbooks (Haider, 1993)

Piracy gains respectability because it promotes reading habits (Haider, 1996)

Copyright laws are clear; No infringement in local books; Piracy due to high prices and non-cooperation from foreign publishers (Sethi, 1994)

Need to raise public awareness (Mirza, 1992)

American Views on Book Piracy

International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) represents 1,300 U.S. companies

IIPA publishes annual reviews of copyright piracy of US materials by various countries

During 2004, the estimated total trade loss of US book industry amounts to US$603 millions in 67 selected countries

Trade Loss of US Book Industry Due to Piracy in Pakistan

IIPA Reviews Piracy in Pakistan

Piracy of computer, business, medical and engineering texts, English Language Teaching materials, and reference materials

Legitimate importers and booksellers reported a sharp decline in sales

Reprint piracy and commercial photocopying remained major problems

Entire books are photocopied and available for sale in stalls and bookstores

Trade bestsellers are pirated in large numbers and available everywhere

Pakistan also exports pirated books to India, the Middle East, and even Africa

Some raids are reported but with little effect

Maximum fine that a pirate has received from prosecutions was Rs.15,000

No sentences involving imprisonments were meted out

Pakistan is the world’s worst pirate country for published materials (per capita)

Law in Pakistan is not compatible with international conventions and agreements

Pakistan’s Response

Government is ready to take serious steps

Pakistan Intellectual Property Rights Organization (PIPRO) was established in 2004

A draft Bill for PIPRO Act is ready for presentation to the Parliament

PIRPO has powers and functions to protect IPRs in Pakistan

Objectives of Study

Find out what international and national copyright conventions and laws are applicable in Pakistan

Determine the awareness level of publishing industry about copyright laws

Determine the causes of book piracy in Pakistan

Find out the major beneficiaries of book piracy

Suggest measures to be taken against book piracy


Questionnaire survey of Pakistani publishers, booksellers, importers and exporters of books

There was no comprehensive directory of book trade in Pakistan

On the basis of some short directories and with the help of professional librarians the a list of 893 enterprises was prepared


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