Laura Simmerman, RN
GLT1 Issues Behavioral Science
October 20, 2014
Sociology is the study of social behaviors. In social science or sociology, there are two specific research methods commonly used. Social anthropology is considered the holistic study of humanity. This field promotes culture as a scientific concept. Anthropologists use the study of social anthropology as the means of studying how culture affects how people adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways. In both sociology and cultural anthropology there are 2 large categories of research.
Quantitative research is quantifiable, meaning measureable, and is collected by analysis. The collection must be ...view middle of the document...
With sociology, one important method used is the survey. “A Survey is a research method in which a population, or a portion thereof, is questioned to reveal specific facts about it” (Tischler, 2011). “One of the most popular methods of quantitative research uses surveys to collect data” (McCallister, 2003). Surveys are helpful with sociological reports with a large number of people. For example, a survey frequently used is the United States census that is taken every 10 years to give the United States population.
Another research method for sociology is the research interview. These interviews are questionnaires that are formed to provide data on the area being studied. There are also subcategories of interviewing including structured interviewing which is used to duplicate data overtime by different people interviewing. Other interviewing techniques are semi structured or open-ended interviewing which allows the interviewer to be freer to ask additional questions relevant to the study. Philosophical justification for using interviewing or questionnaires in sociological research is the real knowledge that is obtains through the information. A structure questionnaire is able to provide real feedback that is a result of observations from human behavior.
There are two components described in cultural anthropology, ethnography and ethnology. Ethnography involves a study and description of a culture found during direct observation from fieldwork. Ethnology is the study of multiple cultures and that later get compared for a historical point of view. The use of this research is to help find links for similarities and differences in cultures. Branching from this involves ethnographic fieldwork. This type of field work is a research method commonly used in cultural anthropology.
Ethnographic fieldwork is research done at the location being studied. For example, if the researcher wanted more information on how Nigerian’s conducted business, they may use ethnographic fieldwork to observe businessmen in a Nigerian setting....