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Sociology Essay

1402 words - 6 pages

Review Chapter 7; Chapter 8; Chapter 9

I. Gender roles
A. Gender roles are sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a male or female. However, there is much evidence showing that gender roles have more to do with social status then biology
II. The Women Question
A. What is the root of patriarchy?
III. Patriarchy
A. A nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity
B. A wide range of theories and approaches have been applied to the study of gender, including structural functionalism, psychoanalytic theory, conflict theory
C. Each perspective has contributed to our understanding of gender differences, ...view middle of the document...

Men and women are reduced to automations in a static battle
H. Our actions are influenced by structural forces that we might not even be aware of
I. Susan Bordo(1990)
J. Gender skepticism won’t get gender theory anywhere when it comes to addressing issues such as the wage gap, eating disorders, or rape
VII. Psychoanalytic theory
A. About gender focus on individualistic explanations for gender differences as opposed to societal ones, and inherent in these theories is the notion that natural differences exist between men and women that dictate how they behave
B. Nancy Chodorow (1978)- parents’ unequal involvement in child rearing was a partial cause for the universal oppression of women
C. Mothering by women is produced in a cycle of role socialization
D. Chodorow argued that egalitarian relations between the sexes would be possible if men shared the mothering
E. Carol Gilligan (1982) men and women have different ways of thinking
F. Women- ethics of care (connections and relationships)
G. Mend-system of rules (impersonal, abstract rules and notion of justice)
VIII. Socialist feminists
A. Socialist feminists argue that all social relations, including relations between workers and the owners of the means of production, stem from unequal gender reactions
B. Socialist feminists connect gender and power
C. Heidi Hartman(1981) and Catherine Mackinnon(1983)
D. Capitalism combines with patriarchy to make women economically dependent on men’s incomes
E. Gender inequality is first and foremost about power inequalities
IX. Social constructionists
A. Social constructionists argue that gender is a process in which people participate with every social interaction they have
X. “Doing Gender”
A. Candance West and Don H. Zimmerman-“Doing Gender” (1987)
B. Gender is a matter of active doing, not simply a matter of natural being.
C. To be a man or a women is to perform masculinity or femininity constantly
D. “Doing Gender” perspective is rooted in Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical theory, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology
E. People create their social realities and identities through interactions with one another
F. People contribute to, reaffirm, and reproduce masculine dominance and feminine submissiveness
XI. Black Feminist
A. Black feminists have pointed out that gender doesn’t function in a vacuum and that gender studies must take into account that no single category of women or men exists. Indeed some women are not only more privileged than other women but are even more privileged than some men
B. Patrici Hill Collins(1991)
C. We do a lot more than gender; gender intersects with race, class, nation, religion, and so forth
D. Matrix of domination
E. Bell Hooks(1984)- not all men are privileged over all women
XII. Postmodern Theories
A. Some postmodern theorists question the whole notion of “woman” as a separate,...

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