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Socialisation And Identity Making In Denmark

1584 words - 7 pages

Socialisation og identitetsdannelse

I sociologien beskæftiger man sig ofte med begrebet socialisation. Socialisationsprocessen er den proces som gør det lille barn til samfundsborger. Det er også den proces hvor sociale normer, roller og værdier indlæres, og det er ved socialisation at sociologerne taler om opvækst. Socialisationen er det som hjælper det enkelte individ på vej til at tilegne sig de værdier og egenskaber som gør at de kan indgå i et fællesskab.
Der er både det man kalder primær og sekundær socialisation. Den primære socialisering sker for det lille barn gennem påvirkningen fra forældrene og søskende. Den primære socialisation betegner overgangen fra biologisk til socialt ...view middle of the document...

Som sagt kan de både være formelle og uformelle. Nogle normer kan være formelle – altså beskrevet i love og regler, og andre normer kan være uformelle, som f.eks. vores bordskik. Det står ikke skrevet nogle steder at man skal blive siddende til alle er færdige, eller at man ikke bøvser ved bordet. Det er bare sådan det er. Det er disse normer som indføres gennem socialiseringen. De fleste normer ender med at komme så langt ind i vores system, at vi til sidst slet ikke tænker over dem. Nogle normer kan diskuteres og problematiseres og andre er bare ikke til diskussion. Derfor er der også tilknyttet nogle sanktioner i forbindelse med mange normer. Lad os tage skolen som eksempel. Hvis en elev laver sine ting og deltager aktivt i timerne, vil den pågældende elev også belønnes i den anden ende med en glad lærer og en god karakter. På den anden side, vil den elev som ikke arbejder hårdt eller måske er flabet i timerne, måske blive smidt uden for døren eller straffet på en anden måde. Der er mange andre tilfælde, hvor sanktionerne er meget tydeligere også. Normer og sanktioner er altså udtryk for det man i det sociale system kan kalde den sociale kontrol. Social kontrol handler om at etablere en social orden ved, at det enkelte menneske tilpasser sig – som der så fint står på side 15 i vores bog ”Sociologi”. Dette gælder både for familien, i skolen og på vores arbejdsplads. Så er der også de vi kalder ”sociale afvigere”. Sociale afvigere er dem som går ind og bryder forventningerne om hvilken adfærd de skal have. Altså dem hvis væremåde og opførsel ikke følger de respektive normer. Når man snakker om sociale afvigere, bliver det oftest forbundet med noget negativt, f.eks. tabere i skolen, kriminelle, fattige, folk med mærkelig og klodset adfærd osv. Men det kan også sagtens være positivt. F.eks. hvis man er usædvanlig rig, klog, dygtig eller lignende kan sociale afvigere sagtens være et begreb der bliver brugt.
Når man snakker om socialisation, snakker man også meget om roller. I det moderne samfund som vi lever i, skal vi kunne tilpasse os en masse forskellige roller, og man skal kunne navigere mellem mange forskellige forventninger. Man skal f.eks. både kunne påtage sig rollen som gymnasieelev, kæreste, datter osv. Altså er der en masse sociale roller. Dette kalder man også adaptation.
Det er i den forbindelse vi bruger begreberne ”rolle” – som er den dynamiske, og ”status” – som er den mere stillestående. Vi bliver socialiseret ved at påtage os en masse roller og statusser som fortæller os hvordan vi skal føle, tænke, handle, opføre os osv.
Begrebet ”social rolle” er faktisk et begreb som er lånt fra skuespillerkunsten. Det kan måske give os et indtryk af at det hele er skuespil, og det er faktisk den helt forkerte betydning. For alle disse roller som vi påtager os, er noget som er nødvendigt, og som er en hel naturlig del af os. Vi tilpasser os de omgivelser vi er i. Med alle disse roller som vi skal holde styr på, kan det til tider gå...

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