Research Design and Critique
The various reasons and effects of different sleeping patterns of NTIC students
Tutor Name: Elisabeth Grindel
2nd March 2012
To study abroad has become a common way for many students in recent years. I have been studying at NTIC for half a year already. Students at Nottingham Trent International College come from many different countries including China, Japan and the Middle East countries. These students have their own diverse styles of living and this include their pattern of sleep. According to Evans (2006), there are slightly different performance in when and how people sleep. ...view middle of the document...
The findings show reasons for regular sleep patterns and the effects of irregular sleep. As a result of these researches scientists summarised that the optimum amount of sleep is about 8 hours per day. Simultaneously, there is a traditional statement in china, which is related to the best time to sleep and be wildly accepted nowadays. Thereby, the particularly optimum and the most standard sleeping period who defined from 11pm to 7am every day(Pang, 2005). In other words, people sleep after 11pm can be characterized as irregular sleepers or later sleepers. However, according to a survey by Wolfson, and Carskadon (1988), there is a significant change of sleep and waking behavior during the adolescent years, and most of participants who were surveyed were not satisfied with their sleep period. It shows that controlling the sleeping period and habits has become a considerable problem. Many young people complain about not having enough sleep. From reading a selection of relevant literature, the following aspects have been identified: firstly, relationship between sleep habit and memory, secondly, the effects of sleeping time to the endocrine system, and, thirdly, the adverse effects of bad sleeping habits on the organs of body (Hirshkowitz and Smith, 2011).
In order to research the relationship between sleeping habit and memory, Plihal and Born (1997) did an experiment of effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on memory, and the results are the recall of paired-associate lists improved more during early sleep, and recall of mirror-tracing skills improved more during late sleep. However, the effects may reflect different influences of slow wave sleep which is called SWS and rapid eye movement which is called REM sleep since time in SWS was 5 times longer during the early than late sleep retention interval, and time in REM sleep was twice as long during late than early sleep (Plihal and Born, 1997). That means sleeping habits indeed can influence the memory to some extent.
Sleeping patterns can also have an effect on the endocrine sustem. According to an journal article which was written by Spiegle, et al, sleep debt can lead a harmful impact on carbohydrate metabolism and endocrine function. The effects are similar to those seen in normal ageing and, therefore, sleep debt may increase the severity of age-related chronic disorder (Spiegle, et al, 1999). In other words, lack of sleep may not cause the serious results, but will let the hidden pathogeneses accumulate in the body and would be harmful to endocrine function. After that, the feedback from the endocrine function may lead to some other harms such as sleeping disorder. Therefore, sleeping habit can also affect the endocrine system.
Thirdly, sleeping patterns can also cause bad outcomes of organs ,such as cancer. Bad sleep habits include many variety such as sleep in recliner, on the sofa, or even in bed with an overhead or bedside light on. Nevertheless, sleep with the light on...