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Social And Demographic Changes Essay

1485 words - 6 pages

MEDZINÁRODNÝ MARKETING - ESEJ
SOCIO - DEMOGRAFICKÉ ZMENY
MIGRÁCIA

Pojem migrácia definujeme ako zmenu miesta trvalého pobytu za hranice určitej územnej jednotky; premiestňovanie obyvateľov v území spojené so zmenou bydliska. Niekedy sa tu hovorí o fyzickej alebo zemepisnej mobilite. Migrácia ako prvok nie je fenoménom iba posledných rokov, či desaťročí, ale bola súčasťou našich životov i na samotnom počiatku ľudstva.
Ľudia odnepamäti migrovali tam, kde mali lepšie životné podmienky. Či už to bolo územie bohaté na vodné zdroje, na úrodnú pôdu - vhodnú na pestovanie poľnohospodárskych plodín alebo oblasť bohatá na prírodné zdroje. V týchto regiónoch potom vznikali osídlenia alebo väčšie ...view middle of the document...

V rámci prvej skupiny, na ktorú sa v tejto práci koncentrujem rozlišujeme 2 skupiny migrantov. Emigranti a Imigranti. Prvá sa týka ľudí, ktorí sa z rôznych príčin trvalo alebo dlhodobo vysťahujú z miesta svojho bydliska. Ich opakom je druhá skupina a teda občania, ktorí sa z rozličných príčin prisťahujú na určité územie.
Rozsah migrácie sa jednoznačne zvýšil po snahách zjednotiť trh, odstrániť rôzne tarifné a netarifné prekážky, ktoré dovtedy bránili premiestňovaniu obyvateľstva. Najvýznamnejším miľníkom bol vznik rôznych národných alebo nadnárodných združení, z ktorých vyniká najmä vznik Európskej únie a s tým súvisiaca menová, hospodárska alebo politická únia. Prekážky obchodu, pohybu tovarov, služieb ale najmä občanov zmizli a to dalo priestor na masovú migráciu.
V minulosti /napr. na našom území v čase komunizmu) ľudia nemohli vycestovať za hranice. Znamenalo to, že všetky ľudské kapacity zostávali v krajine. Či už hovoríme o špičkových lekároch, kvalitných učiteľoch, šikovných športovcov alebo jednoducho o odborníkoch, vždy hovoríme o tom istom - boli nútení alebo dobrovoľne zostali doma. Tým sa dosiahla vysoká kvalita zdravotníctva, školstva, športu a v konečnom dôsledku i ekonomiky krajiny. Produkcia tovarov dosahovala vysokú úroveň, poskytované služby mali požadovanú úroveň, do rozpočtu prúdili financie no napriek tomu to všetko skončilo. A prečo? Pretože to bol umelo vytvorený stav. Ako bolo vyššie uvedené, aspekt migrácie je prirodzený pud človeka a prípadné uzatváranie hraníc a nútenie jedinca zostať na určitom území je kontraproduktívne.
Dôvody migrácie bývajú rôzne. Môže sa jednať o kultúrne aspekty - jedinci cestujúci za vzdelaním, spoznaním novej kultúry, štúdiom na zahraničných univerzitách, stretávaním nových ľudí a oboznamovaním sa s ich zvykmi, tradíciami a povahovými črtami typickými pre daný región. Môže sa jednať i o ekonomické faktory. A tými sú jednoduchšie povedané financie. Lepšie platené pracovné pozície, výhodnejšie dôchodky od zahraničného štátu, nižšie úverové zaťaženie od bánk, priaznivejšie daňové zaťaženie alebo naopak nepriaznivé ekonomické faktory štátu, z ktorého sa jedinec chce odsťahovať. Ďalším faktorom môže byť i spoločenský fenomén. Jedinci si chcú vyskúšať život v zahraničí, získať životné skúsenosti, obohatiť sa, zlepšiť sa v jazyku alebo získať nový náhľad na svet. Okrem iného môžeme hovoriť i enviromentálnych dôvodoch /sťahovanie sa tam kde je čistejšie životné prostredie/, kde je prostredie bohatšie na potravinové zdroje alebo môžeme hovoriť o dôvodoch, ktoré súvisia s relaxáciou a turizmom. Iným prvkom môže byť i zdravotné riziko a tým je skutočnosť, že v mnohých krajín sú alebo hrozia vojenské konflikty a teda bezpečnosť o vlastné zdravie je hnacou silou sťahovania sa.
Zo všetkého však prevládajú najmä ekonomické dôvody súvisiace so sťahovaním sa za lepšími životnými podmienkami a perspektívou za kvalitnejším a jednoduchším životom. Hlavnými migračnými prúdmi sa stávajú trasy z rozvojových...

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