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Smoking And Lung Cancer Essay

1482 words - 6 pages

Smoking and Lung Cancer
Most people are aware of the fact that smoking causes lung cancer but people hardly know how or why the cancer develops. What does tobacco contains that gives the smoker the deadly disease of lung cancer? How many packs a day and for how long does a person have to smoke in order for him or her to develop this cancer? Are there any other conditions that are caused by smoking besides lung cancer? According to Jonathan Foulds in the article “Smoking and Lung Cancer,” the smoke contains dangerous chemicals such as benzopyrene and methylnitrosamino which are deposited into the lungs. Further, the chemicals cause DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation which end into ...view middle of the document...

This study included 7,760 American men of Japanese ancestry who were born between 1900 through 1919, and lived on the Hawaiian island of Oahu (Chyou, et al). Their information on how cigarette smoking plays a major role in lung cancer was obtained. The following information was included in the study: how many packs a day they smoked, for how many years they had smoked, their starting age of smoking and their age of quitting. Out of the total number of men who participated in the study, 212 men were diagnosed with lung cancer and other men with cancers of kidneys, urethra, bladder, pancreas, esophagus, mouth, and cancers of other sites (Chyou, et al). All of the lung cancer cases were analyzed separately. 60% of those surveyed were current smokers and past smokers. Individuals who developed lung cancer were also susceptible to developing other types of cancers because of metastasis of the tumor. The percentage of oral-bladder cancers was 26% and 13% for other cancers for people who developed lung cancer. This study proved that the most effective way of reducing the risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking is to quit smoking. This study also encouraged current smokers to quit smoking by utilizing smoking-cessation programs (Chyou, et al).
The author Geoffrey Cowley, in the article "The Deadliest Cancer,” implies that the biggest killer of Americans is lung cancer, which is a deadly disease that has not received the attention that it deserves, unlike other diseases such as AIDS and breast cancer. More than 160,000 Americans a year lose their lives due to lung cancer; this statistic is higher than breast, colon, and prostate cancer combined. Sixty percent of lung cancer victims die within the first year of diagnosis and eighty-five percent die within five years of the diagnosis. It is not necessary that all lung cancer victims suffer the same consequences. Some smokers stay healthy when others are still diagnosed with lung cancer without ever smoking. There are new treatments that are beginning to extend survival rates. Eighty-seven percent of all lung cancer cases are the result of smoking regardless of sex, race, age, family history, or occupation. The most effective way of saving one's self from lung cancer is to avoid smoking or quit smoking. Ex-smokers are still at risk for lung cancer but their risk of lung cancer is reduced by fifty percent. It also depends on how long they smoked and the amount that they have smoked. If lung cancer is diagnosed at a earlier stage, the chances of a longer survival is increased. Lung cancer is quite difficult to spot in the earlier stages because it develops silently and the symptoms appear after it has metastasized. X-rays are useful in spotting tumors but they cannot be done to detect small tumors. CT scans are very useful in detecting tumors as small as two millimeters. Eighty-one percent of the lung tumors that were detected through spiral CT screening were successfully removed at early...

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