Smart Urinary Biosensor (Biomedical Engineering)
With the increasing cost in providing healthcare to patients with chronic conditions, new strategies need to be developed to provide monitoring and support in a more distributed, noninvasive and remote atmosphere. Smart urinary biosensors permit the internal biologically-controlled mega-network controlled by the central nervous system communicates with an external body sensor using a wireless communication technology (Thomas, Javier, & Espina. 2006, p.60).
Urine test strips or dipsticks have for a long time been used to detect renal failure. The disadvantage of using this method is that it can produce false ...view middle of the document...
The kidney disease is a significant health issue to the public. Symptoms that may occur with serious kidney diseases such as chronic kidney disease and acute kidney failure are body swelling, decreased urine production, body swelling, confusion, fatigue, lethargy, metallic taste in the mouth, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Seizures and comma can occur in extremely severe acute kidney failure (Wong, Ahmad, & Peng, 2006, p.900). The renal causes of renal failure are: sepsis (when the body system is overwhelmed and causes inflammation causing shutdown of the kidneys), medications that can be toxic to the kidney such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, significant muscle breakdown in the body(Rhabdomyolysis), multiple myeloma and acute inflammation of the glomeruli. An example of the post renal causes of kidney failure is obstruction of the bladder or the ureters that can cause back pressure (Wong, Ahmad, & Peng, 2006, p.900). When the pressure increases to a significant level, the kidneys become damaged and thus, shut down. Other post renal causes are prostate cancer, tumors in the abdomen and kidney stones. Chronic kidney failure develops eventually after months or even years. The main causes that can lead to chronic kidney failure are poor controlled high blood pressure, poorly controlled diabetes and chronic glomerulonephritis. Kidney stones do not directly cause chronic kidney failure, however, if there is only one kidney in the human body it can pose as a risk factor. The less common causes are reflux nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, prostate diseases and kidney stones.
Sol-gel has substantial fabrication properties for biosensors. One of the properties that make sol-gel more unique and effective is the entrapping of biomolecules such as enzymes, proteins and antibodies. The immobilized molecules in sol-gel matrix incorporate structural integrity and thus can be able to resist thermal and chemical deactivation. The sol-gel basic conditions and its ability to tailor the process for requirements making it versatile. The sol-gel derived glasses can potentially host matrix for biosensing and chemical sensing. The sol-gel incorporates both transparency and has diverse chemistries and configurations to entrap the many biomolecular dopants. These properties can also be used in optical biosensors. There are a few urea optodes in the sol-gel film. One of the optodes is Gulcev which contains 500nm thick of immobilized film with urease enzyme. The materials conjugate to a dextran polymer backbone that is mixed with hydrolyzed alkoxysilane solution and cast to the planar surface to form a biologically active sol-gel. The urea-based optical biosensor uses spectrophotometric detection using lipophilic Nile Blue chromoionophore in sol-gel films designed for the detection of urea. The urea can then be hydrolyzed by urease of products that shift the pH.
More than 10%...