1. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, sometimes with real-time computing constraints. It is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. In contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tasks depending on programming. Embedded systems have become very important today as they control many of the common devices we use.
Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory ...view middle of the document...
1.1 APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM
We are living in the Embedded World. You are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning of these gadgets. Television, Radio, CD player of your living room, Washing Machine or Microwave Oven in your kitchen, Card readers, Access Controllers, Palm devices of your work space enable you to do many of your tasks very effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car take care of car operations between the bumpers and most of the times you tend to ignore all these controllers.
In recent days, you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many places. All kinds of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies, new devices; fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded products. Now you can agree to the fact that these embedded products have successfully invaded into our world. You must be wondering about these embedded controllers or systems. What is this Embedded System?
The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the database is known as the standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purposes and applications.
You need to install the relevant software to get the required processing facility. So, these desktop computers can do many things. In contrast, embedded controllers carryout a specific work for which they are designed. Most of the time, engineers design these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind. So these controllers cannot be used in any other place.
Theoretically, an embedded controller is a combination of a piece of microprocessor based hardware and the suitable software to undertake a specific task.
These days designers have many choices in microprocessors/microcontrollers. Especially, in 8 bit and 32 bit, the available variety really may overwhelm even an experienced designer. Selecting a right microprocessor may turn out as a most difficult first step and it is getting complicated as new devices continue to pop-up very often.
In the 8 bit segment, the most popular and used architecture is Intel's 8031. Market acceptance of this particular family has driven many semiconductor manufacturers to develop something new based on this particular architecture. Even after 25 years of existence, semiconductor manufacturers still come out with some kind of device using this 8031 core.
1.1.1 Military and aerospace software applications
1.1.2 Communications applications
1.1.3 Electronics applications and consumer devices
1.1.4 Industrial automation and process control software
1.2 MICROCONTROLLERS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
In the Literature discussing microprocessors, we often see the term Embedded System. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers are widely used in embedded system products. An embedded system product uses a...