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Sisteminis Poziuris Ir Organizacija Essay

9561 words - 39 pages


Bendrosios sistemų teorijos idėjos
Terminą „sistema“ vadybos teorijų tyrinėtojai pradėjo naudoti jau pirmuosiuose savo darbuose H. Fajolis, F. Rotlisbergeris ir kt. Dažniausiai šis terminas buvo naudojamas, nagrinėjant struktūrų klausimus. Organizacija, kaip visuma nebuvo analizuojama.
1937 m. biologas L.Bertalanfi (L.von Bertolanfy) suformulavo bendrosios sistemų teorijos idėją. Tyrinėdamas gyvąją gamtą, jis nustatė visą eilę dėsningumų, kurie jo manymu, objektyviai vyksta ir kitokio pobūdžio (negyvosios gamtos, socialiniuose, gamybiniuose) objektuose. Tuo metu bendrosios sistemų teorijos tyrinėjimai nebuvo ...view middle of the document...

Todėl kibernetiką kai kurie tyrinėtojai taip pat vadina sistemų mokslu.
Kibernetinė sistemų samprata yra siauresnė negu sistemų teorija. Sistemų teorijos tiria ne tik fizikos, biologijos, technikos objektus, bet taip pat tyrinėja socialines, ekonomines ir gamybines sistemas. Kibernetika kaip valdymo teorija, kuri remiasi informacijos judėjimo ir grįžtamojo ryšio principais, yra tik bendrosios sistemų teorijos dalis, nagrinėjanti tik sistemas, kurios reguliuoja pačios save.
Organizacijos, kaip socialinės sistemos sampratą, suformulavo Č.Bernardas. Darbuotojų aktyvumas, darbo kokybė ir kiti rezultatai priklauso ne tik nuo motyvacijos, bet ir nuo daugelio kitų organizacijos veiksnių, kurie tarpusavyje susieti tampriais ryšiais. Č. Bernardas organizaciją pradeda traktuoti kaip žmonių sistemą, kurioje kiekvienas žmogus, žmonių grupės, susieti tarpusavyje tampriais ryšiais , o visų jų veikla sąmoningai koordinuojama. Jis organizaciją traktuoja kaip žmonių sistemą, kurioje kiekvienas žmogus ir jų grupės sujungtos tam tikrais ryšiais, kurių būsenos visą laiką keičiasi. Ryškus žmoniškųjų santykių atstovas suformuluoja vieną svarbiausių sistemos savybių – vientisumo savybę.
Č. Bernardas pateikia pirmąją sampratą apie socialinių sistemų tarpusavio ryšius, didesnių sistemų dalijimąsi į mažesnes. Organizacijas jis vadina dalinėmis sistemomis, nes jos sudaro didesnes sistemas (korporacijas, susivienijimus). Visos organizacijos įsijungia į didžiules, tačiau niekuomet galutinai neapibūdinamą, neformalią organizaciją – visuomenę.
Č.Bernardas skirsto organizacijas į formalias ir neformalias. Formali organizacija yra tokia, kurios veikla yra sąmoningai koordinuojama. Jos koordinavimas vyksta padalinių pavaldumo centrinei valdžiai principu. Neformali yra organizacija, kuri nėra apibrėžta funkciniu ir struktūriniu atžvilgiu.
Minėto mokslininko darbus tęsė H. Saimonas ( H. Simon). Ankstyvuosiuose savo darbuose jis išnagrinėjo vidinių ryšių klausimus, konstatuodamas, kad sisteminėje organizacijoje posistemių tarpusavio ryšiai turi esminę įtaką veiklos rezultatyvumui. Įvertindamas ryšių organizavimo svarbą, H. Saimonas pasiūlė steigti firmose specialias komunikacines tarnybas, kurios užsiimtų informacijos rinkimu, perdavimu, sisteminimu, analize, saugojimu.
Esminis sisteminio nagrinėjimo elementas yra organizacijos tikslų nustatymas. Daug dėmesio skiriama sprendimų priėmimo teorijai. Čia pasižymėjo H.Saimonas, kuris nagrinėjo kiekybinius sprendimų priėmimo metodus ir tvirtino, kad socialinėse sistemose negalima naudotis vien jais. Jis pabrėžia kitų, kokybinių metodų svarbą: intuicijos, nuojautos, patyrimo, analogijos ir kt.

Bendroji sistemų klasifikacija (K. Bouldingas)
Tyrinėjant ir klasifikuojant sistemas daug prisidėjo K.Bouldingas (K. Boulding). Šis tyrinėtojas išskiria aštuonias sistemų klases:
- statinės sistemos, sudarytos iš nejudančių elementų;

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