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Simulation Essay

3064 words - 13 pages

第3章

Arena 概貌

在第二章的 2.4 部分,我们实际上利用 Arena 完成了“手工”仿真过程,而且在 2.6 部 分对该模型和修改后的模型(即到达率加倍)进行了多次重复仿真运行。这一章本书将带你 领略应用 Arena 建模仿真的整个过程,首先教你启动 Arena,浏览为上一章手工仿真建立的 现成模型,并运行该仿真模型,然后学习如何从头开始建立模型。本章也会探讨用户界面问 题,以及如何使用帮助文件系统,并讨论运行仿真的不同方法,同时讲解绘图和图形工具的 用法。 3.1 节介绍如何启动 Arena;3.2 节带你浏览一个现成的模型;在 3.3 节你可以更加详细 地查看这一模型,浏览对话框和动画,运行模型和查看结果;3.4 节帮助你从头开始一步步 建造该模型;3.5 节简要介绍 Arena 的一些主要建模功能,包括菜单和工具条中的可用选项 以及绘图打印功能等;3.6 节介绍 Arena 强大的帮助文件系统以及所有详细的技术文件;3.7 节讨论有关运行和控制仿真的各种选项。 看完本章后,你将会了解 Arena 是如何工作的,并知道用 Arena 可以做些什么,而且你 可以有效地运用 Arena 建立一些简单的模型,甚至可能借助帮助系统,通过自己摸索有关菜 单和对话框完成一些更为复杂的工作。仅通过阅读本章,你也许就能了解不少有用的东西, 但如果能同时在电脑上加以实际操作, 效果会更好。 有关如何建立模型的更多内容将会在第 四章及以后章节讨论。

3.1 启动系统
Arena 是一种真正的微软“视窗”操作系统(Windows)的应用软件,因此用户对它的 ...view middle of the document...

tpo)保存在 Arena 7.0 文件夹下的 Template 文件夹中。 模板断开 (当你不再需要相应的建模元素出现在活动面板里时) 等同于 File >Template , Panel >Detach。 关联帮助按钮,提供关于菜单或者工具栏命令的帮助。单击它鼠标箭头上会增加一个 问号,用带有问号的箭头单击想要得到帮助的工具栏按钮或者菜单命令即可得到相应 的帮助信息,关闭帮助窗口后鼠标指针就会返回原来的单箭头。 工具提示(Tooltips)可以提供另外一种更加快速和简洁的关于工具栏按钮的帮助。将 鼠标停留在某个按钮上面保持一两秒种不动, 就会出现一个小方框显示该按钮的名称。 如果 你想知道那个按钮更多的信息,可以使用 ,也可以在帮助系统中查阅相关信息(因为你

此时已知道了该按钮的名称)。关于帮助功能的更多描述可以参考3.6节。如果你对频繁出 现工具提示感到厌烦,可以通过View>Toolbars菜单打开Toolbars标签项,在其中清除Show Tooltip(显示工具提示)选项。当想从Arena系统退出时,点击右上角的 命令File>Exit,或者按Alt+F4。 ,或者使用菜单

3.2 Arena 的窗口组成
在这一部分,我们将打开一个现成的模型,看看Arena的各种窗口,以便读者熟悉,同 时介绍一些Arena的基本术语。

3.2.1 打开模型文件
已有的模型可以通过 File>Open 菜单命令打开 (或者单击 弹出 “打开文件” 对话框) ,

文件名称会出现在滚动框内,当然你也可以直接搜索其它文件夹或磁盘。找到名为 Model 03-01.doe 的文件(Arena 文件的默认扩展名为.doe1)。当使用典型安装时,该模型文件保存 在 Arena 7.0 文件夹下的 Book Examples 文件夹内。单击文件名选中该文件,并点击 Open 按钮即可(或者双击该文件名)。

1

在早期系统中,Arena 的代号为 Bambi。此处不再详述。

你会看到一个如图3-1所示的Arena窗口(你看到的工具栏和按钮也可能会有些差异,或 所处的位置不同),我们称之为模型3-1。

3.2.2 Arena 窗口的构成和关联
如图3-1所示,该模型所在的Arena窗口可分为几个部分。 在右边占据屏幕大部分的是模型窗口,它实际上位于Arena窗口的内部,如果你同时打 开几个模型,每个模型窗口单独容纳一个模型,但所有窗口都在Arena窗口内,就像文字处 理和电子表格软件一样。 你可以通过点击某个窗口以便在不同窗口之间切换, 或者从Window 菜单的窗口列表里选取。如果有大量模型窗口同时被打开,可以使用Ctrl+Tab键在窗口之间 切换,或者使用“”按钮使部分窗口缩小为图标形式,此外,Window菜单里还有一些其 它命令(层叠、平铺等)来安排打开的模型和被最小化的图标。可使用 File>New或者Ctrl+N)来创建一个空的模型窗口,使用 来保存当前的活动模型窗口,使用 工具按钮(即

按钮(即File>Save或者Ctrl+S)

(即File>Open或者Ctrl+O)来打开以前保存过的模型

窗口,改变窗口大小或重新定位窗口的操作与其它Windows操作系统下的应用软件是一样 的。

原书P52 项目工具栏 工具栏 模型窗口中的流程图视图 状态栏 模型窗口中的电子表格视图

图3-1 简单加工系统(模型3-1)的Arena窗口 我们所熟悉的剪切、 复制和粘帖功能在Arena内部以及Arena和其它应用软件之间均可进 行。例如,你同时打开了几个模型窗口,想把一些对象从其中一个窗口复制到另一个窗口,

可先用鼠标选择对象(可用Ctrl+单击或者拖动鼠标画框来选择多个对象),再复制对象到 剪切板 (Ctrl+C或Edit>Copy) 切换到另一窗口, , 然后将其粘贴进去 (Ctrl+V或Edit>Paste) 。 当选择了“粘贴”操作之后,在选项的西北角鼠标箭头会变成十字线,然后在想要粘帖的位 置点击鼠标即可完成操作。再比如,你同时打开了Arena和工作表,你想要将表中的一个长 数字放到Arena文本对话框中,可首先从工作表单元格中复制该数字,再切换到Arena窗口中 (通过Windows任务栏或使用Alt+Tab键在打开的软件之间切换),在对话框中定位你想要 放数字的插入点,然后粘贴进去。如果你在文字处理系统中写报告,想要粘贴一幅Arena屏 幕的“快照”,则进入Arena窗口,按Prnt Scrn键,然后切换回正在处理的文档,在你想要 的位置粘贴该快照;如果你只想粘贴当前活动的窗口(例如一个对话框),则按住Alt+Prnt Scrn,然后粘贴到你想要的位置。 模型窗口分为两个区域或两种视图:流程图视图(flowchart view)和电子数据表格视图 (spreadsheet view),通常情况下在模型窗口中能够同时看到两种视图是很有用的(但也可 通过在菜单命令View中清除Split Screen选项或者单击 来关闭一个视图,以便让模型窗口

集中显示某个视图。在这种情况下,要想看流程图视图或电子数据表格视图,只需在屏幕左 边的项目栏里单击任何一个流程模块( )或电子数据表格模块( )即可)。流程图

包含了模型的图形符号,有加工流程、动画和其他一些绘图元素。电子数据表格能够显示诸 如时间等参数的模型数据, 允许用户进入和编辑数据。 许多模型参数在两种视图中都可以被 看到并编辑, 但电子数据表格视图使用户能够一次处理更多的参数, 并且相似的参数被集中 存放,对于大模型来说非常便于编辑。当同时显示两种视图时,可通过上下拖动分割两种视 图的水平线,以改变两种视图在模型窗口中的比例。 图3-1中Arena窗口的左下方是项目工具栏(Project Bar),它存放各种面板(panel), 每个面板包含了用户所使用的各种对象。面板一次只能显示一个。当前项目栏显示的是“基 本操作面板(Basic Process Panel)”,它包含了基本建模模块(module),这些模块在仿 真模型中有广泛的用途。在基本加工面板下面的是标有“报告(Report)”的水平按钮,这 个面板可以显示仿真运行后的结果, 可试着点击这个按钮观察该面板, 再次点击基本操作面 板返回。“导航(Navigate)”面板可以使用户从不同角度观察模型,在多层递阶模型中还 可以看不同的子模型(模型3-1没有多层子模型,因此唯一的视角是顶层模型,单击左边的 “+”键,在打开的树状结构中可以看到三个条目,具体将是在3.2.3节讨论)。项目工具栏

通常被放置在窗口左侧,但也可以将其“悬浮”在屏幕的任何位置,当然如果你愿意,也可 以把它放在模型窗口的右侧。当用户在建模时,一般需要显示项目工具栏,然而当需要更大 的空间来查看模型窗口中的事物时,可以按项目工具栏右上角的“”按钮或者在View菜单 中清除Project Bar选项来隐藏工具栏。 Arena中还有其它一些面板 (可能会与版本的授权情况有关) 包括 , “高等操作 (Advanced...

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