Cloning in the Cattle and Sheep Industry
Most farmers and ranchers use cloning as advancement in their program. Cloning can offer farmers advantages by the farmers selecting the animal that has passed down the most superior genetics and that has performed the best in everyday environmental settings. Also, it can give them advantages on selling high-quality meat and dairy products for the dairy cattle producers. Ranchers has the advantages by hand picking the highest quality in the sires or dams genetic makeup by making an exact replica for breeding purposes in the commercial industry and/or the stock show industry.
Cloning of cattle and sheep does not harm the animal in ...view middle of the document...
Twenty-four years later, Robert Briggs and Thomas King used nuclear transfer on northern leopard frogs. They removed the nucleus from a blastula cell and then replaced the nucleus from an egg. In 1995 the first animal, two domestic sheep named Meagan and Morag, was cloned by using differentiated embryo cells was found to be starving the differentiated cell of nutrients, causing it to enter a suspended state of cell division. Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell in the Roslin Institute at Edenburgh, United Kingdom accomplished this. Finally on July 5, 1996 the famous Dolly was born using a differentiated adult cell by Wilmut and Campbell. The cell she was cloned from was received from the udder of a six-year-old Fin Dorset ewe. (Seraphin, 2007)
Cloning of cattle and sheep is accomplished by first and foremost selection of the animal you would like to clone. This is based on the animals breeding performance, genetic makeup in his or her offspring, and whether or not it can handle the stress it has put on it due to the whole process. One of the many reasons why selection is important factor in cloning is due to not many of the carriers have a high birth rate of live progeny. When it came to cloning Dolly, scientist tried 277 times before they were successful in producing one live offspring (Edwards, 2003).
Some reasons that animals are being cloned are for the production of their cells that have been genetically engineered for the purposes of human medicine. In sheep when they are genetically engineered they carry the genetic information to make the human clotting factor IX in their milk, which is an important for therapeutic treatment for hemophiliacs (Eenennaam, 2006). Also, in some cases there are possibilities that cloned animals are disease resistant and have improved in milk composition. Also, frozen tissue samples are being used for the preservation of endangered species and help to save some species when they are on the verge of extinction. In many cases why cloning is used is to breed the cloned animal and their progeny is used for meat purposes. The Food and Drug Administration has not passed to use the actual cloned animals for human consumption (Eenennaam, 2006). The FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine is ultimately responsible for the evaluation of the food safety and the health of animal’s implication of cloning, as well as its environmental impact.
There are many ways to clone an animal but in cattle and sheep there are only a select few. Mainly there are only four main methods for producing clones number one individually separation of embryonic blastomeres up to the four- cell stage, number two embryo bisection at the morula or blastocyst stages, number three tetraploid of embryo complementation, and number four nuclear transfer or nuclear cloning (Wells, 2003). The first two cloning methods rely on the inherent cellular totipotency of very early embryonic cells, which limits the number of viable embryos and...