CJ 411: Dr. Shrock
November 10, 20011
Sex Trafficking: Africa to Europe
Transnational crime is a complex issue and sex trafficking is just one of these many issues. In this paper I am going to discuss when and where these transnational crime groups first engage in the activity, how this benefits the transnational crime groups involve, discuss how the emergence and ongoing conduct of the criminal activity has been facilitated or hindered by the groups own characteristics and by the elements of external environment, and I will explore prospects and possible strategies for eliminating criminal activity. I will also discuss the criminal network involve in sex ...view middle of the document...
The victims of sex trafficking can be voluntary or involuntary. Some victims have a choice in the matter, while others do not. Africa to Europe is not the area that has the most sex trafficking which is partly due to relative difficulty of making the crossing and small size of the African expatriate population in Europe (UNODC 2010: 4). Outside of Africa, Europe has the largest African-born population. The trip to Europe is dangerous and migrants are subject to exploitation throughout their journey. Due to strong enforcement actions the routes have changed. For example, “the Canary Islands grew rapidly until 2006, at which point enforcement pushed the flow toward Lampedusa, until agreement between Italy and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya shut this route down” (UNODC 2010: 5). These groups rely on authorities to transport them to their destinations. Authorities are the ones who bring them to their destinations because they know the route better. The problem occurs when the migrants get to their destination because these groups do not have the right paper work they can be sent back to their African countries. In addition, “Approximately 55,000 migrants were smuggled into Europe in 2008, and worth about 150 million to small groups of smugglers” (UNODC 2010: 5).
This type of organize crime involve the use of deception and maybe even violence to create exploitable work force. It is hard to estimate how big the size of the problem really is because sex trafficking is an underground criminal enterprise. According to Joe Goodey there are several reasons why it is difficult to accurately put an estimate on the problem. “In the first instance, its underground nature makes it difficult to accurately measure. Second criminal justice authorities tend not to keep record on sex trafficking cases. Third, trafficked women are reluctant to report their exploitation to the police for fear of reprisals from traffickers and because of their inherent distrust of the authorities” (Goodey 2004: 28). Due to the distrust in the criminal justice system sex trafficking will be underreported and not fully represented. The victims are often brain wash that both police and NGOs will not assist them. Women and Children are primary victims of sex trafficking. The organized crime groups or smugglers try to gain trust of the victims. If they gain this trust of these individuals they basically have them where they want them. The smugglers push for trust so that they can prevent victims from escaping. Individuals who do manage to escape deny that that were forced into sexual exploitation through the fear of retaliation, fear of returing back to brothels or they may be departed back to their country This is another reason why recruitment is carried out by people of the same origin. Recruiters are sometime women because women are not seen as a treat and or not associated with violence. When recruiters are women, these women have previously victims of sex trafficking...