Purdue University |
A brief overview of sedentary lifestyle behaviors and their health outcomes |
McCombs, Brandon William
Sedentary behavior and leisure time sitting have increased over the last few decades. As a result negative health outcomes such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have exponentially increased. Sedentary activities consist of, but are not limited to, commuting to and from work, watching TV, reading, and sitting at work. Over the last half century the transition from manual labor to a more occupational sitting has led to increased sedentary behavior. This coupled with increased home ...view middle of the document...
It should be noted that many inactive adults were excluded from these surveys if they were missing information or had a family history of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and/or hypertension.
Physiologically, consuming more food stores and prolonged sitting time leads to a negative energy balance, thus over time developing into unhealthy weight gain. According to Thorp et al sitting time was shown to be more consistently associated with other metabolic biomarkers (8). For example, once an individual is obese the likelihood of them obtaining high blood pressure, diabetes, and/or cardiovascular diseases increases. It can then easily be seen there are several negative connotations to an inactive lifestyle at the work place and home.
The research on the inactive population creates an increasingly threatening issue to the general populace. It becomes necessary to thus look into the research and results for the active population and see if the same health concerns plaguing the inactive population occur in those that are active.
Nonsedentary Adults Those reported engaging in more moderate physical activity and currently being employed were associated with significantly lower odds of being obese and/or having hypertension (2). Although there is good evidence that higher levels or moderate-to vigorous activity lead to substantial health benefits, and therefore there is increasing interest in identifying the health risks associated with sedentary behaviors (5). The active participants of this research therefore live overall healthy lives with low negative health risks.
There are many takeaways from comparing both the active and inactive populations of the research. First, mortality rates increased as daily sitting time increased from almost none of the time to almost all of the time as shown in the Katzmarzyk study. However even with physically active individuals there was a strong relationship between sitting and risk of mortality (5). Compared to participants that spend time sitting 1-2 hours a day and participants that who reported sitting for more than 4 hours per day had a higher odds of being obese, having diabetes and/or hypertension (2). Along with daily sitting time body mass index (BMI) increased (2,5,6,8). Such attributes is thought to be, in part, due to a reduction in energy expenditure.
Thus, the active population of the research has very few of the health concerns that the inactive population has.
The relative strengths and weaknesses of the research performed needs to be taken into account for when discussing the validity of the results. In some studies only BMI as an indicator of obesity was available, whereas waist circumference has been shown to be a stronger predictor of obesity and other health related conditions. Other limitations found that surveys did not distinguish between occupational sitting, leisure time sitting, and total time sitting. Other studies had shown a lack of sample size and...