The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
-evolved from the Renaissanceâ€™s stress on the importance of individuals to understand the world around them, and was the key factor that moved Europe from a worldview that was primarily religious to one that was primarily secular.
-the new scientific approach promoted critical thinking. Nothing was accepted on just faith.
-The critical analysis of everything in society from religion to politics and the optimism that the human mind could find the solution to everything was known as the Enlightenment.
Nicholas Copernicus- suggested in his book â€œOn the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheresâ€ that the sun was the center of the universe ...view middle of the document...
His work demolished the old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
Galileo Gaililei- continued the attack on traditional views of science. He used observation rather than speculation to formulate ideas- such as his laws on the motion of falling bodies- Gailileo established experimentation. He applied experimental methods to astronomy by using the newly invented telescope. He discovered the four moons of Jupiter, and that the moon had a mountainous surface, much like the earth. His discovery destroyed an earlier notion that planets were crystal spheres, and challenged the traditional belief in the unique relationship between the earth and the moon. His evidence reinforced and confirmed the theory of Copernicus. His book â€œDialogue on the Two Chief Systemsâ€ openly criticized the works of Aristotle and Ptolemy, and he was arrested imprisoned, and tried for heresy by the Papal Inquisition and was forced to publicly recant his views. In modern times, Galileoâ€™s trial has come to symbolize the conflict between religious beliefs and scientific knowledge.
Sir Isaac Newton- integrated the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo into one system of mathematical laws to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolved around the sun. The key feature of his thesis was the law of universal gravitation. According to this law, every body in the universe attracts every other body in precise mathematical relationships. Newtonâ€™s law mathematically proved that the sun, moon, earth, planets, and all other bodies moved in accordance with the same basic force of gravitation. Such proof showed that the universe operated by rules that could be explained through mathematics and that a religious interpretation was not the sole means of comprehending the forces of nature.
Francis Bacon advocated that new knowledge had to be...