Scientific Management Essay

2210 words - 9 pages

CONTENTSTable of contents 1Introduction 2Body of text 3-5Conclusions 6-7References 8INTRODUCTIONAny organisation, any enterprise cannot become successful without management.However management as a science in such kind in which we have it now, has appeared not at once.As soon as people began to live in organised groups, the necessity of management hasappeared.At the first stage where groups of people were insignificant, management in all spheres was carried out by one person - the leader of this group. Further, in process of group growth and complication of functions carried out by them, the necessity of labour division and group differentiation has appeared. But it couldn't happen at once, ...view middle of the document...

W.Taylor's name, Henri L.Gantt, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth.Scientific management focuses on worker and machine relationship. Organisational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production process.In 1911, Frederick Taylor, known as the Father of scientific management, published Principles of Scientific Management in which he proposed to design work methods to increase productivity. One of his famous experiments was performed at Bethlehem Steel Company in Pittsburgh. He examined the time and movements, developed a better method for performing that job and trained the worker. In addition, Taylor offered a piece rate that increased as workers produced more.Taylor's studies were followed by Gibreths, a husband and a wife, who also helped to find more efficient ways for workers to produce output. Frank Gilbreth made his contribution in the field of brick lying by changing an 18 step process into 5 step that led to increased productivity by about 200 percent.The Gibreths believed that were was one best way to perform an operation. However this "one best way" could be replaced when a better way was introduced.Other representative of Scientific Management was Henri Gantt. He developed a Gantt chart, which is used for scheduling multiple task over a time period. He developed a pay system with a guaranteed minimum wage and bonus systems for people on fixed wages and brought in a significant contribution to the leadership theory development.ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENTUnlike Scientific Management which focused its attention on productivity, Administrative Management have engaged in development of management in the organisation as a whole and was concerned about administrative part of the organisation.The ancestor of this school was Henri Fayol.He worked as a mining engineer and came to realise that managing an enterprise required a lots of skills apart from technical ones.Henri Fayol was the first to identify the four management functions:PlanningOrganisingLeadingControllingHe also developed guidelines for managers to follow. These guidelines form fourteen principles for effective management.Other contributor to Administrative Management was Mary Parker Follet.She pointed out that all managers want flexibility, and she also distinguished between the motivation of individuals and groups.BUREAUCRACYMax Weber, known as a father of Modern Sociology, concentrated on how to structure an organisation for success. Weber outlined key elements of an ideal form of structure, which he believed would develop efficiency and called it bureaucracy.The bureaucratic structure had a number of important advantages for large organisations.The division of labour increased efficiently due to the continued repetition of the task.Hierarchy allowed developing a chain of command.Format selection meant that employees were hired on knowledge and experience and no other criteria would be used.Career orientation ensured that career professionals would give the...

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