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Scientific And Technological Advancements Of Economic Systems

2187 words - 9 pages

By the time 1750 came around, American was experiencing what is known as the First Industrial Revolution (circa 1780-1850). It is hard now to fathom the idea of having to function economically without the use of factories, factory machines, and factory workers. By history shifting from the cottage industry, traditional agriculture, and manual labor into a factory-based manufacturing type systems made of complex machinery, constant technological expansion, and new energy sources and advanced in transportation, we evolved. The entire world evolved, soon to rely on industries to survive.
For hundreds of years, life was focused on agriculture. Most people lived in countries because city ...view middle of the document...

In 1787, Edmund Cartwright’s power loom revolutionized the speed of cloth weaving no longer needing the slow process of producing textiles by hand looms. (Riane Eisler (2007)).
Factories sprang up all across the country. Industrialization caused population migration from rural areas to urban areas. Cities expanded rapidly to provide homes for workers being employed in the factories. Workers faced harsh conditions everywhere. Living conditions were cramped, unsafe and unclean. Men, women and children labored long hours for minimal wages in dangerous conditions and no job security. The working class was financially and physically unprotected by the government as the middle and upper class grew wealthier and more powerful. (Riane Eisler (2007)).
The social impact of the industrial revolution differentiated across the regions and classes. As factories emerged around towns, the population increased because of the migration from rural areas to the more convenient urban areas. New family and class structures became more evident to accommodate to the new wage economy and production was no longer in homes but in factories due to the need of large scale production. The cities transcended from 10% Europeans to an increase of 52% Englishmen, 25% Frenchmen and 36% Germans living in the cities. (Abdul Najeeb, (12th December 2012)).
The social impact caused an impact on the class structure, working class, elites or the middle class, family, and gender. The class structure changed the old division of the way society was seen and separated. The societies went from being socially divided as clergy, nobility and commoners to the creation of an upper class, the working class, and the ever-growing middle class. The working class became the mass of workers who participated in the new age economy. Most of the industrial workers were less educated and struggled financially and could barely make ends meet. The industrial workers wage was kept low and prices were rising. Factories changed the pace of workers. The rural work life was a lazier pace, with factory work being more reliant on time-based work and the employers vigorously made sure no time was wasted or delayed. Workers arrived at a whistle and if you did not arrive on time you were locked out and charged a fine. (Abdul Najeeb, (12th December 2012)).
During the Industrial Revolution literacy showed a gradual increase, especially in the lower working class. This was a result in the increase of schools. Steam engines were applied to printing presses allowing for publishing of newspapers and magazines which also helped to promote literacy. Promoting literacy and advancing in literacy showed a social impact of helping to publish and promote awareness about the poor living and working conditions experienced by the working class. It was through education that reform was enacted. (Red Apple Education Ltd (n.d.))
The elites and the middle class became a very evident class due to...

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