Schizophrenia Abstract Essay

1095 words - 5 pages

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic brain disorder in which a person interprets actual reality abnormally. It is a mental disorder that makes it difficult to think clearly, have normal responses to emotions, act normal in a social setting, and tell the difference between their own interpretation of reality and actual reality. There are several types of Schizophrenia: paranoid, undifferentiated, disorganized, residual, and catatonic schizophrenia. The assumption is that schizophrenia is split or multiple personalities. Schizophrenia is defined as “split mind” but this references the disruption in normal balance of emotions and thinking. Schizophrenia is a chronic ...view middle of the document...

When a neurotransmitter chemical is released at the pre-synaptic membrane it binds to a specific receptor on the post-synaptic membrane triggering an electrical change. Once this process is done, the thought, feeling, or action is completed. An altercation or decrease in neurotransmitters at the post-synaptic membrane occurs when there is a neurological condition and can be associated with hallucinations and delusions. There is no other known cause for these two symptoms, only that it is a neurological problem of sensory loss. The cause for depression is the decreased production of serotonin which in return will drop the serotonin levels in the brain. When a person with schizophrenia has the symptom of anxiety it could be due to a decrease in GABA activity.
There are a wide range of treatments to assist with Schizophrenia symptoms, even if the symptoms subside, treatment is still required so that they don't reoccur. Hospitalization to provide adequate safety may be needed when symptoms become severe. Treatments can consist of medications such as antipsychotics and psychological therapy to help cope with the disorder. Antipsychotics in general are used to lower dopamine levels in one’s brain; Haloperidol, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidane, and Clozaril, are the most common drugs that target a wide range of Schizophrenia symptoms. Olanzapine and Risperidone are meant to antagonize serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system. An antagonistic drug binds to the dopamine and serotonin receptors to help decrease or block the agonist response or the responses that are in competition with these neurotransmitters. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that reacts in certain brain cells to help with emotion and movement and serotonin helps regulate body cycle processes. Taking these medications will help decrease events of psychosis and bipolar behavior and/or autism by inhibiting dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters. Haloperidol alters effects of serotonin and dopamine. It serves as an anticholinergic, which inhibits the acetylcholine action at the receptor site in the parasympathetic nervous system and as an alpha-adrenergic blocker which inhibits the release of epinephrine or epi-like substances in the sympathetic nervous system. This decreases the signs of schizophrenic behavior and improves behavior by creating a neutral state between rest and digest and flight or fight. Quetiapine is another drug that serves as an antagonizer of serotonin and dopamine along with being an antagonist to histamine and adrenergic receptors. Histamine causes capillary dilation and constriction of smooth muscle in the bronchials and decreases overall blood pressure. This drug...

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